Their retinas generally have both rods and cones for scotopic and photopic vision , and most species have colour vision. The protease enzyme Elastase digests and degrades a number of types of protein. As mentioned above, curing protein digestive problems in stomach and intestinal tract requires treatment on many fronts, including nutritional deficiencies, hormonal dysfunction, spleen energetic deficiency etc, and may involve complimentary therapies as well as supplementation. Nutrient Quantity Omega 3 Fatty Acids 3. The oil helps regulate menstruation, balance the progesterone levels, reduce menopause symptoms, balance hormonal levels promoting natural ovulation, minimize the risk of breast cancer, etc. Dr Richard Schulze, there are a number of drawbacks. Retrieved 21 May
Understanding Your Kidneys and CKD
However, response is not uniform, and one has to consider each individual's physiology and digestive and energetic health before prescribing a blanket approach.
Those who benefit from raw food diets in general probably do not have chronic energetic problems in terms of spleen function, for example. There is no 'one size fits all' diet, and each individual's needs, tolerances etc. For those with impaired digestive systems, it is probably best to be conservative and exercise caution, and avoid or limit those food types that will put a strain on one's digestive system or that are too 'cold' in energetic terms, for example, avoiding too many fried foods, soft drinks and too much raw food.
Chinese doctors in general recommend eating fresh fruit, but in general only raw vegetables a couple of times a week for those with impaired digestive systems. The easiest 'vegetables' to digest raw are lettuce, cucumber and tomatoes tomatoes are strictly speaking a fruit, but are usually eaten with savoury foods and not with other fruit.
All other vegetables are much harder to digest raw. Moderation is the key. Once one's digestive system is functioning much more effectively i. Whilst some non-mainstream dieticians recommend raw food diets, they are often looking at diet from a Western perspective, and are ignoring 5, years of oriental medicine and health science.
It is not the business of this web site to give dietary advice, but we recommend that you seek dietary advice from a number of different sources, including oriental medicine specialists, and not just rely on one particular source. And use your common sense of course. Please note that bananas are a source of cold energy and excessive banana consumption disproportionately favoured over other fruits can result in too high a cold energy intake.
In addition, consuming chilled foods or drinks e. In addition to the cold energetic property, they require heat from the body to warm them to the body's own internal temperature. It is generally best to avoid eating overly hot or cold foods. Below is a chart listing the energetic properties of a cross section of food types. There is no 'one size fits all' diet recommended by practitioners of TCM. This is extremely important. Whilst I agree with many of the principles of macrobioticism, this web site does not subscribe necessarily to all macrobiotic concepts relgiously or at all.
Macrobiotic concepts derive from Japanese internal medicine and practices like Shiatsu. The web sites below discuss hot and cold energy and how they relate to the macrobiotic diet.
Clearly some types of food are detrimental to all physiological types! But we are talking 'proper food' here. Some specialists base this on blood type. There may perhaps be some parallel here to the Ayurvedic medicine's concept of Dosha type.
Or perhaps TCM's hot and cold energy concept and the qi bias of a particular person. It may even relate to the modern idea of DNA-based dietary supplements. I am an ideal case study for this subject matter. For example, from the age of 18 onwards, I developed a taste for Indian and Mexican food, and any foods that were spicy, as they had more 'flavour' and were 'more interesting'. When I left home, I cooked all my own meals and made either a spicy curry or a spicy chilli almost every single night of the week.
In addition, I would eat bagels with cinnamon and cardamom in them, and often eat Swedish gingerbreads which contained plenty of ginger. As well as large amounts of butter and cheese being vegetarian it is sometimes tempting to rely heavily on such hot energy dairy products. The net result was that my daily intake of hot energy herbs and foods was extremely high. This resulted in frequent sweating, especially at night, a total downward spiral of his immune system frequent colds - with stress as an additional factor, constant thirst and of course a red tongue.
Eventually I came down with exhaustion and post viral fatigue syndrome where I would feel exhausted a month or two after each bout of influenza, but after that I would feel ok again.
The second acupuncturist I saw was clued up enough to question me about my diet, and put me onto a herb and spice free diet, along with eating 'white' foods such as white basmati rice, potatoes, vegetables, butter, and some cheese and beans etc. I was also prescribed bags of very strong Chinese herbs.
This could perhaps be likened in some respects to a Salicylate -free diet which is part of the Guaifenesin protocol and the FailSafe Diet. Ayurvedic medicine has a similar approach, where it frequently prescribes aromatic basmati rice as a major food staple to patients, as it is easy to digest. Anyway, I made a massive recovery, hardly needed more than 5 or 6 hours sleep a night, and felt full of energy. Many years later, I went to a Tony Robbins seminar , where I was sold the idea of eating large amounts of raw green vegetables and salads.
I altered my regime massively, and ate blended raw green vegetables every morning for breakfast either green peppers, broccoli high in goiterogenic compounds that suppress thyroid function or celery with added water to make it possible to blend it. I would also eat large amounts of salad with lunch and dinner. This was a huge intake of cold, damp energy. Initially this felt very good after a 7 day raw blended vegetable cleanse - incurred huge and unhealthy weight loss I was asked if I had been in a concentration camp by one ex-colleague and I went back to needing very little sleep each night, but over a period of a few months, this feeling of wellbeing disappeared and I gradually had one cold after another, before coming down with the flu and never recovering into full blown CFS.
Over a 2 month period, I ate just green peppers each morning for breakfast, which although they do not contain any goiterogenic compounds, still kept him in this constant feeling of malaise i. I did read a newspaper article about the damage raw food diets can do, with a baby being fed raw vegetables by its parents and actually dying an extreme case.
I then stopped eating the raw vegetables for breakfast and immediately felt much better, as if a constant background 'brake' had been removed. I later discussed this with another acupuncturist who concurred that the high intake of cold, damp energy was very bad for the immune system and energy levels.
Unfortunately, at the time, I did not know all that I know now and did not begin a positive health regime for full recovery from CFS. Does anyone have a time machine please? Therefore I had to stay off eating too many saturated fats, spicy foods, and also damp producing foods.
The herbs I was suggested to take were warming herbs, to drive out the dampness, but which were not TOO hot or at least were not to be taken in too large a quantity to produce too much heat as to increase my heat burden. This formula felt very warming indeed, but did increase my energy levels. I also found that taking a small amount of fresh Ginger every day was very helpful.
According to TCM, white pepper is ok for driving away dampness but black pepper is too warming i. Probably the most convenient method of sprouting is to use a glass sprouting jar with a screw top mesh lid. And my favoured sprouted seed is Alfalfa, which is easier to fork out of the sprouting jar when ready, compared with beans sprouts which can be a real pain! If you eat nuts and seeds, then it may be beneficial to soak them for 2 hours prior to consumption.
This helps to remove the enzyme inhibitors and mineral absorption inhibiting phytic acid. This of course does not just comprise of raw vegetables and fruit, but also nuts, nut oils, sprouted beans etc. It could be argued that no animal cooks its food apart from humans. And this is a valid point.
However, if one looks to historical context, humans have been cooking food for many thousands of years. Not that thousands of years of habitual activity necessarily constitutes something positive. However, not all forms of cooking are equal and some are more damaging than others e. Microwaving is clearly the worst and also has the greatest negative effect on the DNA and RNA content of protein rich foods. Oriental medicine's studies of the body have been in existence for many thousands of years, and raw food diets have only become popular in the last 30 years or so, mainly amongst Western Industrialised countries, amongst a small segment of the population.
Who has the greater wealth of knowledge and experience? You decide for yourself. It may well be possible to obtain vegan wine, but is it really doing you any good? There is nothing energising about consuming alcohol, a concept which is cited as being one of the main reasons for the raw food intake in the first place.
Is this consistent with the anti-drugs stance? Many people appear to have benefitted from a raw food diet, whereas others have experienced rapid decline in their health and in extreme cases, death. It is not always possible to fulfill all criteria, but a balance can be achieved, or at least one can focus more on short term targets if immediately pressing issues must be addressed. It also removes bitterness, makes the vegetables more digestible, more colourful, and sweeter. Excessive consumption of foods high in sulphur e.
Goitrogens and sulphur containing foods have been reputed to play a role in reducing cancer, which seems to occur concurrently with a suppression of thyroid function. Brassica family vegetables also play a role in promoting Liver function. Some argue that it is fine to eat these vegetables and nuts raw, as long as one eats a wide variety of raw foods, including those that promote thyroid function.
Others argue that they should be avoided eaten raw entirely. I am of the latter opinion please see further down for his personal experiences. As stated above, some argue that one should totally avoid eating RAW: Conversely, traditional fermentation is said to increase the goitrogens in grains e. Please note that broccoli and broccoli sprouts do contain a number of other useful flavanoids antioxidants.
The most important of these is Sulphoraphane Glucosinolate a. Sulforaphane Glucoinolate or SGS. Scientists have identified SGS as a long-lasting natural antioxidant and detoxifier. SGS contributes to the integrity of all cells. More than publications have been released detailing the importance of SGS in activating the body's natural detoxification and antioxidant enzymes, i.
Glutathione, protecting the body from free radical damage. It is a processed, value added product. However, if one considers the actual nutritional composition, it is roughly 10 times lower in fibre than just eating soya beans or other types of beans.
It is not the first time that processing a healthy food source adds cost to the consumer and decreases nutritional benefit! This is not to say that bean curd is 'bad' for you, but if eaten with other foods that are high in fibre, is probably a healthy food.
However, the point being made here is that if one simply eats cooked soya beans with the same food types, it would be even healthier and containing more fibre! There is some debate about bean curd being bad for you. This is based upon the Phytoestrogens contained in bean curd and soya protein products, which are similar molecules to mammalian hormones and its enzyme inhibited properties.
Studies show also that Asians eat only a fraction of the amount of soya than that consumed by Western vegetarians and those who substitute soya for dairy and meat products. Some arguments against soya are listed below. Modern western food is obsessed with combining as many food types into a single meal as possible, regardless of the effects on effective digestion, for example, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruit, starchy carbohyrates, grains, etc.
For example, fruit is best digested on an empty stomach and away from other food types. Starchy vegetables such as potato should be eaten away from large amounts of protein for optimal digestion.
Everyone has no doubt experienced feeling incredibly bloated for many hours after eating a steak with french fries, or even worse, a hamburger with french fries and a milkshake! Not every meal requires a dessert. In fact, desserts are best avoided completely. When a lion makes a kill on the plains of Africa, does it pause before tucking in to cook some french fries or boil some rice?
Does it stop to suck milk from a mother's breast? Does it bake a loaf of bread? Or when it has finished consuming the carcass, does it have a chocolate mousse? The human body has yet to adapt properly to modern diets, and is probably not likely to ever do so. Food combining is a discipline whereby one is selective in terms of what food types one eats together, to ensure that the minimum of energy is employed in the actual digestion of these food types.
By eating certain food types apart, one uses up less energy digesting them and digests them more efficiently, absorbing more nutrients from them, then if one ate them together. In addition, there is less chance of mucin production and thus mucoid plaque formation if one combines food properly. Food combining essentially gives us a little more energy 'for free' with little effort.
It is highly recommended for CFS patients and those with related conditions. Please take note of the above food combining chart. It illustrates what food types are best combined and which are not.
In particular, fruit is best eaten on its own, on an empty stomach i. Melons are best eaten alone. Sweet fruits can be eaten with sub-acid fruits but not acid fruits. Acid fruits can be combined with sub-acid fruits. Fruit classification is not always so clear cut, and certain fruits, e. It is probably not as critical to correctly combine fruit as it is other food types, although I have noticed quicker digestion when combining easily definable fruit types correctly.
All dried fruit is classified as sweet, and is also acid producing. Celery and lettuce can be combined with fruit if desired, but in general most other vegetables do not combine so well with fruit, although some will disagree.
Always avoid eating fats with high protein meals. Some food combining charts classify beans as proteins rather than carbohydrates, but most do not. Beans are regarded by some as being hard to digest, because they contain both copious amounts of protein and carbohydrate usually between 1: Nuts also contain both, but not as much carbohydrate usually 3: Therefore it is commonly held that when eating beans it is best to eat them with either vegetables, salad, or other carbohydrates such as grains, in order to dilute down the protein content slightly.
Additionally, eating beans and wholegrains together provides a complete protein source, whereas eating beans without grains does not. Some protein source in jars or tins come preserved in olive or sunflower oil, e. This is not ideal from a food combining perspective.
Fish preserved in brine is better, although not as tasty! Fresh fish is clearly better if possible. It is best to avoid vinegar with carbohydrates as it impairs carbohydrate digestion, which means avoiding vinaigrette dressing with beans. Many dried greens or superfood powders or fruit powders may contain a wide variety of ingredients, but often different fruit types are mixed together, e. Some believe that greens and fruits can be happily mixed together, even though the greens are essentially a high protein food source.
I am not totally convinced. Equally if you want to take a small amount of greens mixture with a meal, then it is best to take it with a protein meal. Otherwise it can be very useful, although perhaps does not always have to be followed religiously - one may notice the difference combining correctly and not. I have tried drinking a small amount of pomegranate juice when his previous meal was almost fully digested, and it considerably lengthened the time it took to digest the last remaining amount in the stomach.
As stated above, one should not combine two different incompatible food types in the same meal. This also means that one should not begin the next meal before the previous meal has fully left the stomach. Even if you are eating a compatible food type with the previous meal, it is good practice not to eat a meal until one is fully hungry, as otherwise one may be prolonging the amount of time the last part of the previous meal is in the stomach, leading to fermentation or pushing the food through to the intestine too early.
Many of us are not used to be fully hungry, i. So to implement this may require some discipline. Some metabolic types do not cope so well on an empty stomach as others. To wait for the last part of your meal to be digested may feel like you are starving yourself! However, you may notice benefits in terms of your digestion quality and stools. In reality, to completely empty the stomach in between meals is totally impractical for most, as it involves waiting several hours in a hungry state.
For the majority of us, there will be some mixing of meals in the stomach and intestines, but the goal is to keep this to a minimum as much as possible. So the consumption of MCT oils does not put a strain on your pancreas at all. However they are readily absorbed and may overload your liver if eaten in excess. Long Chain Triglycerides and Short Chain Triglycerides however require enzymes for their absorption and although they require lipase from the liver to digest, do not overload the liver so much as they are absorbed more slowly into the blood stream.
Regarding food combining, MCT oil essentially Caprylic acid and Capric acid triglycerides can be eaten with Protein easily i. Coconut oil may be eaten in moderation with protein e. So it is not ideal but it is not as bad as consuming polyunsaturated oils and other types of saturated fat. Food combining also dictates that one should not eat too much of one food item or type in a meal, e. Diversity in general is the goal for any diet, and with food combining it should be diversity within compatible food types in the same meal.
Eating the same food item every day, or worse still, eating the same food item two or three times a day, may quickly result in the body rejecting that food type. This is typically noted in it not tasting as good as it once did, or even the body becoming temporarily allergic to it. Some foods that one is mildly sensitive to can be eaten occasionally without too many problems, but to eat them more than once a day will likely produce a severe allergic reaction.
Most food combiners recommend eating fruit in the morning, carbohydrates for lunch and protein for dinner. However, some do better with carbohydrates or proteins for breakfast and feel faint on fruit first thing in the morning.
Joseph Mercola uses a metabolic typing to classify people into groups according to what kinds of foods they thrive best on, which is in contrast to others who believe all individuals should be raw vegan and eat low protein diets. Mercola tends to emphasize high protein and good saturated fat diets in general. Digestion times in the stomach for various food types can be found below. In the new millennium, people tend to have busier and busier lives, work longer hours, feel they have to be an expert at everything they do and be successful in all relationships and love, cram in more and more leisure activities, spend large amounts of time spoiling their children, have more and more stress, and instead of eating better food to compensate, we often tend to rely on nutritionally inferior processed and pre-packaged convenience foods and 'ready meals', which have a minimal nutritional value.
It is no surprise that the majority of the population of your country has poor intestinal health. The UK is the most constipated country in the world according to statistics. Below is a link to a time line of the last century, entitled the 'Slippery Slope Index', containing statistics regarding mortality rates and health problems, and relating these to the changes in agriculture, the rise of mass production techniques e.
Clearly, it is up to the individual as to how to interpret these figures, but they do paint a rather disturbing picture about modern dietary and health mal practices and their huge cost on modern populations. The information was compiled by Randall Fitzgerald in his slightly controversial but factual book 'The Hundred-Year Lie: Please see the Toxins page for information about how additives and toxin levels have increased the average human decomposition rate.
Supermarkets today are interested in maximising their profits, naturally, as is any business. That is the purpose of a business. Supermarkets specifically choose to promote the products that generate them the biggest profits. These are often ready meals and processed foods, particularly from their 'premium', 'finest', 'healthy choice', 'good for you' or 'healthy living' ranges.
Naturally, such premium ready meals have to have as long a shelf life as possible and appeal to the broadest tastes, to appear attractive looking in terms on the packaging! Inevitably, such convenience foods are often very high in saturated fat, sugar and salt. Sugar, salt and fatty ingredients are often added to improve the taste of the bland, often low quality ingredients or resulting overcooked ingredients. Simple carbohydrates are often used, e. This applies even to supposedly healthy choices, which are rarely actually healthy, despite advertising claims to the contrary.
It is very rare to find any convenience food that is actually highly nutritious and good for you! And it is not really surprising. For example, breakfast cereals often make claims about high fibre content on the boxes, implying they are a healthy choice, despite the fact that they are often very high in sugar. How can eating something with a high refined sugar content be good for you? They often use abnormally small portion sizes when quoting the nutritional information e.
This makes the cereal sound healthier. In addition, it does not take into account what kind of milk is being used. I find that unsweetened Soy Milk is quite unpleasant, and of course sweetened soy milk typically increases the carbohydrate levels. It is a little like eating rice but without all the fibre and with nearly all the carbohydrate. One has to ask how 'healthy' it is to drink pasteurised milk and indeed an expensive vegan milk substitute.
What purpose does it serve? Why the obsession with breakfast cereals and milk? Rice Dream contains approximately 23g of Carbohydrate per 8oz cup. Semi-skimmed milk typically contains approximately Soy Milk typically contains 15g of Carbohydrate per 8oz cup. Breakfast bars have become more fashionable and popular, with breakfast cereal manufacturers making a 'bar' version of a cereal.
These are often marketed as a breakfast replacement for busy people on the move. Basically it is a sweet, not a breakfast. Breakfast or cereal bars have a very high sugar content, and often contain jam or chocolate. They also often contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, i. They do contain some cereal, but on the whole they are almost as unhealthy as eating a Mars bar for breakfast.
Consumers seem to be brainwashed by labelling and advertising that low fat products are healthy, even though they contain a large amount of sugar which will still make you obese, rot your teeth and mess up your gut flora! Get up earlier and eat a proper breakfast, or bring some porridge oats to work with you add hot water and mix, or microwave with water. A breakfast bar, in its small convenient packaging, for 'breakfast' on the move has as much to do with breakfast as a Nissan Micra has to do with a Ferrari.
One should bear in mind that most are very high in simple carbohydrates, are generally low in fibre, may well contain transfats and are often slightly browned or burnt meaning that they probably contain a significant level of carcinogens.
This is not taking into account the margarine or sugary jams and marmaldes people often spread onto their baked breakfast goods. Of course, wholegrain or brown versions are better, but still, there are better starts to the day. Many yoghurts, as described above, make claims to being healthy, but often contain sugar, artificial colours and preservatives, even those that contain probiotic bacteria. Ready made sauces nearly always contain sugar, and the vast majority of ready meals with a sauce in them contain sugar.
Since the turn of the 20th Century, the popularity of Sourdough bread aka Natural Leaven Bread has decreased, perhaps more so since the s onwards.
Sourdough bread is made by capturing wild yeasts in the dough or batter, a small part of which is kept apart from each batch prior to baking the loaves and reused for the next batch - the process can be repeated indefinitely. This is in contrast to the popular cultured yeasts that are used in conventional commercial baking the 'fast loaf'. Sourdough bread has a characteristic 'tangy' or mildly sour taste.
I have some experience of making sourdough bread in his early 20s. Because of reasons of profitability, the long term of fermentation and pandering to more commercial tastes sweeter and more bland , bread production shifted from sourdough bread to the common variety. Whilst eating conventional white bread is leads to increased incidences of Candida and bad bacterial overgrowth, eating conventional brown bread may also cause problems with digestion also in some individuals.
Perhaps sourdough bread, not always based upon wheat, may help to mitigate such problems. Alternatively one could consider not eating bread at all, and stick to other whole grains, such as Oats etc. The idea of supermarket displays is to entice people to pick things up as they walk past. Petrol stations do this to good effect in the UK, by making one 'walk the gauntlet': When one is queuing, one may spend a minute or two right next to hundreds of chocolate bars, and they are of course intended to encourage a compulsive purchase, which they often succeed in, helping to fatten up the drivers who probably often spend too much time driving everywhere and not enough time walking or exercising as it is.
Sweets and snacks have very little if any nutritional value, except for energy from fats and sugar. This is not the best form in which to consume these types of constituent i. Canned foods were first introduced in the 19th Century, where they were seen as a novelty and luxury food item by the middle classes.
In early canned foods, lead was used as the solder, resulting in cases of lead poisoning in canned foods containing moist or liquid foods. The most famous case was the Franklin expedition of the Northwest Passage. The basic construction of older cans is a cylindrical segment and two flat pieces for the top and bottom, made of tin coated iron, and soldered on using Lead. The tin coating meant the iron was not rusted away by the food and that tin was preferentially leached into the food rather than iron.
Tin is not know to cause significant toxicity problems. Lead soldering has largely, although not completely, been replaced by other types of can construction such as welded double seams. Modern cans use tin coated stainless steel rather than wrought iron. Lead soldering still remains on 3. These tend to be for dried foods where there is less likelihood of the lead leaching into the food.
Imported cans may however employ lead soldering on them, so it is wise to check. Please see the links below regarding lead use in tin cans. It is used to minimise bacterial growth inside certain canned food stuffs. This appears to be more prevalent amongst Infant Formulas. This bacterial strain is especially heat resistant, and is normally killed by heat treatment of canned foods at C for 3 minutes.
Food manufacturers have used brand advertising to create a feel good factor around household brands, and bombard the public with advertising, to the extent that consumers become brainwashed into thinking that the household brands offer quality, they are there to look after them somehow, they are safe, they can always be trusted and they make you feel at home.
But are they really 'looking after you'? Taking an extreme example, the Scott Expeditions to Antartica at the turn of the previous century used free food products on the condition that they took photographs in polar locations consuming them, to be used in advertising in Europe. Scott knew very little about nutrition and took with him the food types that he thought were luxurious and high in energy.
Cadbury's Drinking Chocolate ran adverts featuring Scott long after most of Scott's expedition had died of starvation. A good example of misleading advertising by household brands, not unknown in the present day! Similarly, the food in restaurants does not really cost that much money to make. It is the service, place and atmosphere that people come to a restaurant for, a place to hang out and eat tasty food. The concept of a restaurant or caterer is that they are there to really look after you.
The types of foods you are likely to eat when eating out are likely to be high in fat, salt and sugar, because they are prepared to taste as good as possible, to increase the enjoyment of your visit. When eating out, people like to treat themselves with alcoholic beverages, fatty and sugary milkshakes or soft drinks etc, which again contain more calories, additives and sugar. Processed food and ready meals is often either fried or contains rich sauces full of additives and saturated and trans fats, rather than being eaten dry unfried!
People must become aware that food labelling and packaging is there to try to make you buy the product and is not really there to educate you. It is a sales pitch. Much like a politician is not really interested in stating a list of facts, but in influencing and making rapport and persuading the individual.
The picture on the packaging does not often reflect what the food will look like when you have cooked it, much like a McDonalds burger that arrives on your tray doesn't look as good as the idealised picture you see in the adverts and pictures.
Just because food packaging makes big claims about being containing certain amounts of a nutritious component, or low amounts of something bad, this does not necessarily mean very much. Guideline Daily Amounts for different ingredients vary from country to country, and are frequently quoted in a range rather than a single ceiling value. The concept of a ceiling value is also misleading, as it suggests that as long as one is just below it, one is going to be eating a healthy meal or having a healthy lifestyle.
Food manufacturers often use the lower GDA for a nutrient such as a vitamin or fatty acid, but use the higher GDA value for 'bad' ingredients, such as saturated fat content as percentage of maximum recommended daily intake. In this way, they can make big claims about their products and make them sound as appealing and healthy as possible. For example, food manufacturers frequently state that a certain product contains Omega 3, but it may not be the best kind of Omega 3 or enough for one's daily intake.
Regular consumption of food products that are high in saturated fats and trans fats will lead to increases in bad cholesterol levels and the build up of plaque on the artery walls. Please see the fatty acids section of the nutritional deficiencies page for more information. The average daily salt requirement is 6g. It is not uncommon for people consuming processed foods and ready meals regularly to eat up to 25g per day. High salt intake can result in a high blood pressure.
Many ready meals balance the amount of salt with a corresponding amount of sugar. Both of these ingredients help to improve the taste of what is probably quite bland food or poor quality ingredients. Other ways of improving the taste of food include picking high quality ingredients, not overcooking the food, adding small amounts of herbs, spices or garlic hot energetic qualities of course. If one is consuming processed and ready meals regularly, then over time the combination of a raised blood pressure and constricted arteries can result in heart disease or heart failure.
In addition, a high trans fat and saturated fat intake over many years can result in so much fat build up around the organs and into the muscle tissue of the heart, that the heart also becomes very weak, making this even more likely. In general processed foods, ready meals and junk foods are low in fibre e.
This can often mean than when eating them, we do not chew them so much and eat them quite quickly, which not only does not signal to the brain that we are becoming full, but also we do not taste the food very much instigating more stuffing of the face! In addition, low fibre foods result in a build up of mucoid plaque in the small and large intestines, and also result in a low faeces volume.
This may contribute to an increased likelihood of bowel cancer. Faeces volumes in industrialised countries is often many times lower perhaps up to 10 times in extreme cases! This way of eating is however flawed and not clever, as it generally means that the total fibre intake is relatively low and cholesterol levels may well go up. In addition, it may be putting additional strain on the adrenal glands as there is less blood sugar reserves available during the day.
People in general do not consume enough water every day, and so if one skips meals also, the total faeces volume may become very low indeed, and the build up of mucoid plaque all the more likely. There is some good news regarding processed foods. As a general rule, tinned fruit and vegetables and frozen vegetables may contain little qi but they are still high in fibre and nutrients.
Whilst it is clearly better to eat fresh vegetables, tinned or frozen vegetables can still be consumed beneficially. In some cases, tinned or frozen vegetables actually contain more nutrients than fresh vegetables that have been stored in the fridge too long. There is nothing normal about being obese.
It is not a natural condition. The human psyche is programmed to seek rich foods in order to put on fat in order to survive the winter.
Eat whilst food is available! That is what the human mind is programmed to do. Obesity and processed food consumption is now equally common amongst the wealthy and the poor. In the early s, the working class of Britain were mostly extremely skinny and underfed. With the introduction of mass food production and processed foods, calories became more readily available, resulting in a gradual weight gain amongst the country's working class.
Obesity is on the increase and is particularly a problem amongst children. However each individual is and their lifestyle choices are their own to make and is not anyone else's business.
Diets that are very high in simple carbohydrates, common in those who regularly eat processed foods in industrialised societies, may lead to diabetes in the long term.
The optimal diet for diabetics is also the optimal diet for everyone else, namely avoiding foods that are high in simple carbohydrates and instead deriving most of one's carbohydrate intake from complex carbohydrates slow release energy. Diabetes is in many cases completely reversible once one reverts to a healthy diet and lifestyle. Diabetes is often associated with chronic obesity.
Diabetes may also lead to renal failure. We as a society are often conditioned to believe that adults tend to be obese and children tend to be slim. The understanding is that one unavoidably becomes more obese as one becomes older, like the older generations; perhaps because of busy lives without time to cook or exercise properly. A little like one becoming a little like one's parents as one sees them so much as 'normal' when one is growing up and learn their values.
However, there is nothing natural about being obese. Excessive fat is not a sign of maturity or of increased wisdom that comes with age! It is important when thinking about excess fat that it is not just the visible fat we are looking for. The most visible fat is of course the subcutaneous fat, that which lies below the skin. This is what makes a person look 'flabby'. However, this is just the tip of the iceberg.
People who displays excesses of fat on their bodies also carry around a large amount of internal fat. This surronds the organs. A person who looks fit or normal may indeed be carrying a large amount of internal fat in their bodies, and have a higher fat percentage that a person who looks more obese.
It is this level of internal fat that is most important in health terms. In extremely or morbidly obese people, postural problems set in and organs are actually displaced in the body. The diaphragm is pushed up because of the fat around the intestines, and mucoid plaque in the intestines, the lungs are compressed making exercise and breathing very difficult , the heart enlarges to compensate. The liver should be filled with water and contain little fat.
In those with diets high in saturated fat and trans fat, and high body fat percentages, the liver may be enlarged and full of fat. In extreme cases their liver may resemble a goose's liver that is prepared for fois gras!
Such geese are force fed corn or maize, and have a liver that is almost 10 times the size of a healthy liver.
The liver is almost purely made up of fat. The liver function of such birds is extremely impaired. This is what happens to human livers in extremely unhealthy individuals over time on a slightly lesser scale.
Please see Dr Sanda Cabot's web site Liverdoctor. The average level of alcohol consumption in the UK has doubled since the s. Most people who drink regularly are blissfully unaware of the damage they are causing to their livers, and are regularly overloading their livers with high saturated fat levels as well as excessive alcohol levels and the usual high levels of toxins from environmental sources, commercially available non-organic food sources, poor cooking practices, stimulants coffee etc.
The daily recommended safe limit for an adult female is units and the daily recommended safe limit for an adult male is units. However, this does not mean that all these units should be drunk all at once, and that one can drink more safely on one day as one did not have anything the previous day.
Regular drinking over these limits, as well as the other factors discussed, will contribute to the onset of liver disease for which there are often no visible symptoms. The liver is able to self-repair itself up to a certain point, but the stage where people usually discover they have liver problems is when this point has been long passed and where permanent damage has occurred.
Information pertaining to liver problems and inefficient liver founction can be read Inefficient Liver Function on the Toxicity page. The daily recommended total fat intake for an adult female is 70g and 95g for an adult male. This does not make any references to fat type, and most of this intake should ideally be monounsaturated Omega 9 and polyunsaturated fats Omega 3 and 6 , rather than bad saturated fats and trans fats.
In many cases, processed foods, junk foods or ready meals contain almost the total daily fat allowance in one meal. What happens at the other meals is another question! There has been a general trend in supermarket labelling to display the fat content on the labels of food, and if a particular processed meal has less fat, then it is better for you. So for example if a dessert contains plenty of sugar but uses skimmed milk and contains little fat, it is still going to make you fat.
It will also help to rot your teeth. Sugar, simple carbohydrates and alcohol are probably the biggest culprits in weight gain, with bad saturated fats as opposed to good saturated fats and trans fats running them a close second.
The consumption of simple carbohyrates in general tends to encourage building up of fat more than eating good fats, although eating enough of any high calorific food type will lead to weight gain.
Calorific information is more helpful but does not tell the whole story. Processed product labelling is therefore quite misleading and lulls people into a false sense of security. Often the low fat versions of a particular food type, e. Often, products advertised as being a 'healthy' option may just contain less sugar than the regular version, or contain artificial sweetners, which are bad for you anyway in terms of toxicity and candida overgrowth , but just won't make you fat.
Low fat versions of certain dishes, e. In , food labelling regulations will be considerably tightened up in the UK. Hopefully then food labelling will be clear and accurate, and easy to interpret.
In certain ready meals, for example, fat content figures may be more than half of the actual fat content of the food. Whilst this is not the norm, it is not uncommon. In numerous cases, a 'Healthy Living' dish may actually contain more saturated fat than a 'Saver' or budget version of the same dish. Supermarkets either seem to not put enough effort into testing their foods, or they are trying to get away with as much as possible by stretching regulations to make their highest margin foods appear to be more attractive.
Unfortunately, at present, whilst the presence of additives has to be declared in foods, the quantities are not, so it is impossible for the average consumer to monitor his intake of respective additives against the 'recommended daily intake'. In the UK, the FSA does believe this information is required to be communicated to the average consumer, and it instead calculates an average diet, and combination of convenience foods, to determine whether, any one product contains too much or not.
This is on a need to know basis for the consumer. The daily limits are in any case calculated on the basis of a threshold where the vast majority of people on or below that limit do not develop cancer or other chronic terminal diseases more than the average person which is not necessarily a good guideline or thing to aspire to anyway , but there are plenty of negative effects on one's health that can occur between zero intake of additives and developing cancer.
These conditions do not come out of nowhere and are not binary in nature. Certain crops are genetically modified to create a strain that is more resistant and often provides larger yields, and hence bigger profits. Whether one views GMFs as an exercise in playing God and producing food that may not be as 'nutritious' or 'natural' as existing strains, and particularly organic foods, or common sense, is another matter.
However, the consumer should at least be able to make an informed choice, and if a food product contains genetically modified ingredients, it should be clearly stated on the label and perhaps even a percentage given of the exact GM content of that food item, rather than just pushing higher and higher percentages of GMFs to the consumer without their knowledge. Currently it is a bit of a lottery, and consumers have no idea what proportion of their food is GM. This is not really appropriate behaviour on behalf of the food manufacturers.
If the packaging looks attractive and if it instills confidence. Faulty or even scratched packaging may cause a consumer to reject that particular item as they do not 'trust' it or have 'confidence' in it.
Whilst this may be sound practice in certain cases if the air tight seal is broken, in many cases it is an irrational practice. People are conditioned to expect attractive and excessive packaging in all areas of consumption. It is a little like the manner in which we are conditioned to only view the 'packaging' of the human body, i. We are unused to seeing what lies beneath the skin that often offends if we see the actual organs, blood, faeces and those body parts that are not frequently viewed covered up, e.
In many cases a 'healthy' person looks very similar to an 'unhealthy' person from the outside at first glance. Often we find unhealthy organs or fat build up offensive as healthy looking tissues, just because they are both 'gory', when in a sense, we should be more conditioned to being offended or distrubed by the morbid and unhealthy. Consumers expect supermarkets and food vendors to educate them on diet and help them to make food choices. They often rely on food labelling, which is not currently very tightly regulated, to help them make split second decisions about how good for them a particular product is.
However, we clearly have a conflict of interest here, as supermarkets want consumers to spend as much money as possible and to buy the highest margin products, namely convenience foods. It is a little like expecting a drug dealer to tell you the truth about cocaine or heroin usage. Consumers are clearly quite naive and really need to take responsibility for themselves and take the initiative to learn at least a few rudimentary facts about diet and what the ingredients actually mean, so they are actually able to make informed decisions, without just relying on labelling and packaging.
The type and the order of the ingredients are often a very good indicator of whether a food product is going to be reasonably good for you or not. Consumers are too used to waiting for the government and packaging and advertising to tell them what they should be doing and eating.
In the US, the trend for suing fast food companies for making one fat is clearly a sign that people want someone else to blame and aren't taking responsibility for their own education and choices.
This web site has rather basic information about diet, but it is a starting point if you are reading this, to provide some basic understanding of dietary pitfalls and requirements, and I hope will inspire further reading and interest. If you buy processed foods, you really need to read the labels, to check for added sugar, yeast extract, MSG, preservatives, colouring etc. If you are not on an anti-candida diet i.
Virtually all processed and pre-packaged foods contain artificial colours to ensure the foods are the colour we expect, rather than an orangey brown colour. However, if consumers were given the choice of a more natural product, it is likely that they would choose one without artificial colouring.
However, if this isn't presented in this manner, consumers will naturally go for foods that 'look right' that they have been conditioned to expect. Virtually all such foods also contain preservatives and stabilisers. These are to ensure that the foods shelf lives can be extended as long as possible to make life easier for food stockists, as otherwise more food would be thrown away or selections would be narrower.
Preservatives work because they help to kill or minimise the growth of bacteria. By the same logic they are often toxic or harmful to the human body to varying degrees. And over time, levels may accumulate in the body. Preservatives are often a euphemism for toxins. Stabilisers and emulsifiers ensure that foods and sauces stay in the consistency that we expect when we open the bottle pour them out.
Separation would look 'unattractive'. Junk foods in general are high in simple carbohydrates potatoes, baked pastry etc. Often the wrong kinds of fats are used for frying, for example, hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated vegetable oils that are high in trans fats.
The result is a meal with very high bad fat content, excessive starchy and full of simple carbohydrates, and with very little nutritional value, and which greatly contributes to increased cholesterol levels. It is not a food type that will make the eater feel particularly energetic afterwards and is certainly detrimental to one's health if eaten regularly. Ironically, the total fat content of many junk food meals, such as a cheese burger, a donner kebab, or fish and chips french fries , is sometimes lower that certain types of premium ready meal from a supermarket which is aimed at the upwardly mobile and aspiring consumers, who would regard such ready meals as being a good, reasonably healthy choice.
Not everything is what it seems. Hydrogenated vegetable oil trans fats has been banned in Switzerland, Denmark and California, on account of strong links to increased risks of coronary heart disease via atherosclerotic plaque build up , yet other countries still allow it to be used, affecting buyers of cheaper convenience goods who do not pay attention to labels or understand what all the ingredients are. Although most fish are exclusively ectothermic , there are exceptions.
The only known bony fishes infraclass Teleostei that exhibit endothermy are in the suborder Scombroidei — which includes the billfishes , tunas, and the butterfly kingfish , a basal species of mackerel  — and also the opah. The opah, a lampriform , was demonstrated in to utilize "whole-body endothermy", generating heat with its swimming muscles to warm its body while countercurrent exchange as in respiration minimizes heat loss.
In the cartilaginous fishes class Chondrichthyes , sharks of the families Lamnidae porbeagle, mackerel, salmon, and great white sharks and Alopiidae thresher sharks exhibit endothermy. Endothermy, though metabolically costly, is thought to provide advantages such as increased muscle strength, higher rates of central nervous system processing, and higher rates of digestion.
Fish reproductive organs include testicles and ovaries. In most species, gonads are paired organs of similar size, which can be partially or totally fused. In terms of spermatogonia distribution, the structure of teleosts testes has two types: Fish can present cystic or semi-cystic spermatogenesis in relation to the release phase of germ cells in cysts to the seminiferous tubules lumen.
Fish ovaries may be of three types: In the first type, the oocytes are released directly into the coelomic cavity and then enter the ostium , then through the oviduct and are eliminated.
Secondary gymnovarian ovaries shed ova into the coelom from which they go directly into the oviduct. In the third type, the oocytes are conveyed to the exterior through the oviduct. Cystovaries characterize most teleosts, where the ovary lumen has continuity with the oviduct. Oogonia development in teleosts fish varies according to the group, and the determination of oogenesis dynamics allows the understanding of maturation and fertilization processes.
Changes in the nucleus , ooplasm, and the surrounding layers characterize the oocyte maturation process. Postovulatory follicles are structures formed after oocyte release; they do not have endocrine function, present a wide irregular lumen, and are rapidly reabsorbed in a process involving the apoptosis of follicular cells.
A degenerative process called follicular atresia reabsorbs vitellogenic oocytes not spawned. This process can also occur, but less frequently, in oocytes in other development stages.
Some fish, like the California sheephead , are hermaphrodites , having both testes and ovaries either at different phases in their life cycle or, as in hamlets , have them simultaneously. Examples of oviparous fish include salmon , goldfish , cichlids , tuna , and eels. In the majority of these species, fertilisation takes place outside the mother's body, with the male and female fish shedding their gametes into the surrounding water.
However, a few oviparous fish practice internal fertilization, with the male using some sort of intromittent organ to deliver sperm into the genital opening of the female, most notably the oviparous sharks, such as the horn shark , and oviparous rays, such as skates. In these cases, the male is equipped with a pair of modified pelvic fins known as claspers.
Marine fish can produce high numbers of eggs which are often released into the open water column. The eggs have an average diameter of 1 millimetre 0. Egg of catshark mermaids' purse. The newly hatched young of oviparous fish are called larvae. They are usually poorly formed, carry a large yolk sac for nourishment , and are very different in appearance from juvenile and adult specimens.
The larval period in oviparous fish is relatively short usually only several weeks , and larvae rapidly grow and change appearance and structure a process termed metamorphosis to become juveniles. During this transition larvae must switch from their yolk sac to feeding on zooplankton prey, a process which depends on typically inadequate zooplankton density, starving many larvae.
In ovoviviparous fish the eggs develop inside the mother's body after internal fertilization but receive little or no nourishment directly from the mother, depending instead on the yolk. Each embryo develops in its own egg. Familiar examples of ovoviviparous fish include guppies , angel sharks , and coelacanths. Some species of fish are viviparous.
In such species the mother retains the eggs and nourishes the embryos. Typically, viviparous fish have a structure analogous to the placenta seen in mammals connecting the mother's blood supply with that of the embryo. Examples of viviparous fish include the surf-perches , splitfins , and lemon shark.
Some viviparous fish exhibit oophagy , in which the developing embryos eat other eggs produced by the mother. This has been observed primarily among sharks, such as the shortfin mako and porbeagle , but is known for a few bony fish as well, such as the halfbeak Nomorhamphus ebrardtii. This behavior is also most commonly found among sharks, such as the grey nurse shark , but has also been reported for Nomorhamphus ebrardtii.
Aquarists commonly refer to ovoviviparous and viviparous fish as livebearers. Fish can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder. There are some species of fish that can produce sounds by rubbing or grinding their bones together.
These noises produced by bone-on-bone interactions are known as 'stridulatory sounds'. An example of this is seen in Haemulon flavolineatum , a species commonly referred to as the 'French grunt fish', as it produces a grunting noise by grinding its teeth together.
In a study conducted by Oliveira et al. The sounds emitted by the H. Some fish species create noise by engaging specialized muscles that contract and cause swimbladder vibrations. Oyster toadfish produce loud grunting sounds by contracting muscles located along the sides of their swim bladder, known as sonic muscles  Female and male toadfishes emit short-duration grunts, often as a fright response.
The red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus , produces drumming sounds by vibrating its swimbladder. Ocellatus can produce different calls depending on the stimuli involved. Like other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites. To prevent disease they have a variety of defenses. Non-specific defenses include the skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps and inhibits the growth of microorganisms. If pathogens breach these defenses, fish can develop an inflammatory response that increases blood flow to the infected region and delivers white blood cells that attempt to destroy pathogens.
Specific defenses respond to particular pathogens recognised by the fish's body, i. Some species use cleaner fish to remove external parasites.
The best known of these are the Bluestreak cleaner wrasses of the genus Labroides found on coral reefs in the Indian and Pacific oceans. These small fish maintain so-called "cleaning stations" where other fish congregate and perform specific movements to attract the attention of the cleaners.
Immune organs vary by type of fish. These fish rely on regions of lymphoid tissue within other organs to produce immune cells. For example, erythrocytes , macrophages and plasma cells are produced in the anterior kidney or pronephros and some areas of the gut where granulocytes mature. They resemble primitive bone marrow in hagfish. Cartilaginous fish sharks and rays have a more advanced immune system.
They have three specialized organs that are unique to Chondrichthyes ; the epigonal organs lymphoid tissue similar to mammalian bone that surround the gonads, the Leydig's organ within the walls of their esophagus, and a spiral valve in their intestine. These organs house typical immune cells granulocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells. They also possess an identifiable thymus and a well-developed spleen their most important immune organ where various lymphocytes , plasma cells and macrophages develop and are stored.
Chondrostean fish sturgeons, paddlefish, and bichirs possess a major site for the production of granulocytes within a mass that is associated with the meninges membranes surrounding the central nervous system. Their heart is frequently covered with tissue that contains lymphocytes, reticular cells and a small number of macrophages. The chondrostean kidney is an important hemopoietic organ; where erythrocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages develop. Like chondrostean fish, the major immune tissues of bony fish or teleostei include the kidney especially the anterior kidney , which houses many different immune cells.
Much like the mammalian immune system, teleost erythrocytes, neutrophils and granulocytes are believed to reside in the spleen whereas lymphocytes are the major cell type found in the thymus. Although not confirmed as yet, this system presumably will be where naive unstimulated T cells accumulate while waiting to encounter an antigen.
B and T lymphocytes bearing immunoglobulins and T cell receptors , respectively, are found in all jawed fishes. Indeed, the adaptive immune system as a whole evolved in an ancestor of all jawed vertebrate.
However, freshwater fish seem particularly threatened because they often live in relatively small water bodies. Overfishing is a major threat to edible fish such as cod and tuna. Such commercial extinction does not mean that the species is extinct, merely that it can no longer sustain a fishery. One well-studied example of fishery collapse is the Pacific sardine Sadinops sagax caerulues fishery off the California coast. The main tension between fisheries science and the fishing industry is that the two groups have different views on the resiliency of fisheries to intensive fishing.
In places such as Scotland, Newfoundland, and Alaska the fishing industry is a major employer, so governments are predisposed to support it. A key stress on both freshwater and marine ecosystems is habitat degradation including water pollution , the building of dams, removal of water for use by humans, and the introduction of exotic species. Introduction of non-native species has occurred in many habitats. One of the best studied examples is the introduction of Nile perch into Lake Victoria in the s.
Nile perch gradually exterminated the lake's endemic cichlid species. Some of them survive now in captive breeding programmes, but others are probably extinct. Throughout history, humans have utilized fish as a food source. Historically and today, most fish protein has come by means of catching wild fish.
However, aquaculture, or fish farming, which has been practiced since about 3, BCE. Overall, about one-sixth of the world's protein is estimated to be provided by fish. In a similar manner, fish have been tied to trade. Catching fish for the purpose of food or sport is known as fishing , while the organized effort by humans to catch fish is called a fishery. Fisheries are a huge global business and provide income for millions of people. However, the term fishery is broadly applied, and includes more organisms than just fish, such as mollusks and crustaceans , which are often called "fish" when used as food.
Fish have been recognized as a source of beauty for almost as long as used for food, appearing in cave art , being raised as ornamental fish in ponds, and displayed in aquariums in homes, offices, or public settings. Recreational fishing is fishing for pleasure or competition; it can be contrasted with commercial fishing , which is fishing for profit.
The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod , reel , line , hooks and any one of a wide range of baits. Angling is a method of fishing, specifically the practice of catching fish by means of an "angle" hook. Anglers must select the right hook, cast accurately, and retrieve at the right speed while considering water and weather conditions, species, fish response, time of the day, and other factors. Fish themes have symbolic significance in many religions.
In ancient Mesopotamia , fish offerings were made to the gods from the very earliest times. In the Book of Jonah , a work of Jewish literature probably written in the fourth century BC, the central figure, a prophet named Jonah , is swallowed by a giant fish after being thrown overboard by the crew of the ship he is travelling on.
In the dhamma of Buddhism , the fish symbolize happiness as they have complete freedom of movement in the water. Often drawn in the form of carp which are regarded in the Orient as sacred on account of their elegant beauty, size and life-span. The astrological symbol Pisces is based on a constellation of the same name , but there is also a second fish constellation in the night sky, Piscis Austrinus. Fish feature prominently in art and literature, in movies such as Finding Nemo and books such as The Old Man and the Sea.
Large fish, particularly sharks, have frequently been the subject of horror movies and thrillers , most notably the novel Jaws , which spawned a series of films of the same name that in turn inspired similar films or parodies such as Shark Tale and Snakehead Terror.
Piranhas are shown in a similar light to sharks in films such as Piranha ; however, contrary to popular belief, the red-bellied piranha is actually a generally timid scavenger species that is unlikely to harm humans. Though often used interchangeably, in biology these words have different meanings. Fish is used as a singular noun, or as a plural to describe multiple individuals from a single species.
Fishes is used to describe different species or species groups. But if the pond contained a total of fish from three different species, it would be said to contain three fishes. The distinction is similar to that between people and peoples.
A random assemblage of fish merely using some localised resource such as food or nesting sites is known simply as an aggregation. When fish come together in an interactive, social grouping, then they may be forming either a shoal or a school depending on the degree of organisation. A shoal is a loosely organised group where each fish swims and forages independently but is attracted to other members of the group and adjusts its behaviour, such as swimming speed, so that it remains close to the other members of the group.
Schools of fish are much more tightly organised, synchronising their swimming so that all fish move at the same speed and in the same direction. Shoaling and schooling behaviour is believed to provide a variety of advantages. While the words "school" and "shoal" have different meanings within biology, the distinctions are often ignored by non-specialists who treat the words as synonyms.
Thus speakers of British English commonly use "shoal" to describe any grouping of fish, and speakers of American English commonly use "school" just as loosely. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For fish as eaten by humans, see Fish as food. For other uses, see Fish disambiguation. For the similar monophyletic clade, see Vertebrata. Giant grouper swimming among schools of other fish. Head-on view of a red lionfish. Fish anatomy and Fish physiology. Fish reproduction and Spawn biology. Egg of bullhead shark. Fish diseases and parasites. Environmental impact of fishing. Fishing industry , Aquaculture , and Fish farming.
Fishkeeping , Recreational fishing , and Angling. For a topical guide to sharks, see Outline of sharks. Angling sport fishing Aquaculture Aquarium Catch and release Deep sea fish Fish acute toxicity syndrome Fish anatomy Fish as food Fish development Fishing fishing for food Fish intelligence Fishkeeping Forage fish Ichthyology List of fish common names List of fish families Marine biology Marine vertebrates Mercury in fish Otolith Bone used for determining the age of a fish Pregnancy fish Seafood Walking fish.
Journal of Comparative Physiology. B Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology. Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 12 October Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. Journal of Experimental Biology.
Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 26 February Le Guyader, , The Tree of Life: Wiley, New York, pp. Integrated Principles of Zoology. Reproduction in an Endangered Ecosystem. Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 26 November Journal of Fish Biology.
The Biology of Hypogean Fishes. Developments in environmental biology of fishes. Archived PDF from the original on 26 March Retrieved 25 June Archived from the original PDF on 25 June Retrieved 28 May Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 4 January A Critique of the paper: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system " " PDF.
Archived from the original PDF on 8 June Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original on 20 January Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 30 December Environmental Biology of Fishes. Southwest Fisheries Science Center. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 29 September Livebearing Fishes , p. Hemiramphidae " Journal of Morphology , pp.
Journal of Cell Biology. Preliminary study for the development of acoustic cues in aquaculture". Fish Disease Leaflet Department of the Interior. Archived from the original PDF on 7 May Retrieved 3 July Archived PDF from the original on 6 February Description and Possible Evolution". Cells and tissues of the immune system of fish. The Fish Immune System: Organism, Pathogen and Environment. Nakanishi, , New York, Academic Press, , pp. Axelrod, eds , Hong Kong: Annual Review of Fish Diseases.
Numbers of threatened species by major groups of organisms — ". Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 18 January Archived from the original on 26 September Archived from the original on 27 June Archived from the original on 14 September Archived from the original on 17 January Archived from the original on 21 January Archived from the original on 30 November Archived from the original on 26 December Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 13 January Archived from the original on 30 April Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus Fact Sheet".
Archived from the original on 26 November Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 26 August Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 13 August