Goals of nutrition therapy that apply to adults with diabetes
Warren Sinukoff Volunteers toronto. An RD also can screen the medications the child takes that may have side effects that contribute to feeding problems. Vitamin D Council website. A periodically updated national nutrition information system and routinely collected data on food and nutrition were considered important for evaluating the effectiveness of national nutrition plans and policies and identifying subsequent actions. New York , United Nations, B Evidence is insufficient to support one specific amount of carbohydrate intake for all people with diabetes. Urinary iodine concentrations for determining iodine status deficiency in populations.
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This one thing can be your key to success Buzz60 1: Why some people hate being hugged, according to science Time 1: E-cigarette use can damage your DNA, study finds Newsy 1: People are getting plastic surgery to look like Snapchat filters Buzz60 1: In developing countries, where some 1 in 3 people living in cities are living in slum areas, the urgency to address this has never been more. With increasing migration to cities almost half of humanity lives in urban areas , there is increasing pressures on providing sufficient resources in a sustainable way.
Furthermore, as cities grow in this way, addressing greenhouse emissions from urban areas can go a long way to helping combat climate change. Conventional thinking on development issues is often characterized by many assumptions, clichés and rationalizations about the residents of slums.
Although the above focuses on cities, more generally, rural areas exhibit more poverty than urban areas which is briefly looked at next. In addition, the section further below on poverty in industrialized areas also suggests that inequality is unfortunately widespread. The International Fund for Agricultural Development IFAD , an international financial institution and a specialized UN agency, released a major report on the state of rural poverty in the developing world in December The Rural Poverty Report contains updated estimates by IFAD of the number of rural poor people living in the developing world, poverty rates in rural areas, and the percentage of poor people residing in rural areas.
The report also includes new information on how many people move in and out of poverty over time. It points to what it describes as emerging opportunities for rural growth and development and suggests how to help rural women and men move out of poverty and become part of the solution for the global food security challenges of the next several decades. In addition, of the 1. The various regions have fared differently, however. Even within these regions, the IFAD reports that some countries and sub-regions fared better than others.
In other words, inequality is high even while absolute poverty is slowly being reduced. In addition, in terms of raw numbers of people, South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are where most rural poor live:.
Although the graphs seem to show progress, the report warns of complacency as further efforts to reduce rural poverty will be complicated by. IFAD also notes that women tend to do more work for less pay and are the primary care givers in virtually all rural societies, yet barely feature in recognition or policy.
IFAD also adds that The general implication of these findings is that achieving gender equality requires challenging social institutions, and that doing so is crucial to address interlocking deprivations which result in poverty — not only for women, but poverty more broadly.
A Canadian study in suggested that the wealthiest nations do not have the healthiest people ; instead, it is countries with the smallest economic gap between the rich and poor.
For many years, poverty has also been described as the number one health problem for many poor nations as they do not have the resources to meet the growing needs.
Yet, it is not beyond humanity:. Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. The report noted that health inequalities were to be found all around the world, not just the poorest countries:. The poorest of the poor, around the world, have the worst health. Those at the bottom of the distribution of global and national wealth, those marginalized and excluded within countries, and countries themselves disadvantaged by historical exploitation and persistent inequity in global institutions of power and policy-making present an urgent moral and practical focus for action.
These all apply to the socially disadvantaged in low-income countries in addition to the considerable burden of material deprivation and vulnerability to natural disasters. So these dimensions of social disadvantage — that the health of the worst off in high-income countries is, in a few dramatic cases, worse than average health in some lower-income countries … — are important for health.
Sir Michael Marmot, chair of the Commission, noted in an interview that most health problems are due to social, political and economic factors. The key determinants of health of individuals and populations are the circumstances in which people are born, grow, live, work and age, he says. And those circumstances are affected by the social and economic environment.
Marmot expands on this further in the video clip. Even within a country such as the UK, then, the report finds that the average life-span can differ by some 28 years, depending on whether you are in the poorer or wealthier strata of society.
This is discussed in more detail on this web site on this page: Various things can create inequality. Most common generalizations will be things like greed, power, money. But even in societies where governments are well-intentioned, policy choices and individual actions or inactions can all contribute to inequality. In wealthier nations, the political left usually argue for addressing inequality as a matter of moral obligation or social justice, to help avoid worsening social cohesion and a weakening society.
The political right in the wealthier nations generally argue that in most cases, western nations have overcome the important challenge of inequality of opportunity, and so more emphasis and responsibility should be placed on the individual to help themselves get out of their predicament. Both views have their merits; being lazy or trying to live off the system is as abhorrent as inequalities structured into the system by those with wealth, power and influence.
In poorer countries, those same dynamics may be present too, sometimes in much more extremes, but there are also additional factors that have a larger impact than they would on most wealthier countries, which is sometimes overlooked by political commentators in wealthy countries when talking about inequality in poorer countries. Indonesia is another example as part of this Noam Chomsky interview by The Nation magazine reveals.
Latin America on the whole is another. Latin America has the highest disparity rate in the world between the rich and the poor: Internal, regional and external geopolitics, various international economic factors and more, have all contributed to problems. For example, the foreign policy of the US in that region has often been criticized for failing to help tackle the various issues and only being involved to enhance US national interests and even interfering, affecting the course and direction of the nations in the region through overt and covert destabilization.
This, combined with factors such as corruption, foreign debt, concentrated wealth and so on, has contributed to poverty there. Much of the above was written around early Unfortunately, well into , the World Bank reported that the Latin American rich-poor gap is widening. There has been progress in closing the gender gap in income, and girls and young women had overtaken their male counterparts in education.
However, inequality is very high. The UK and US are often two of the more dynamic nations, economically and opportunities to make a very successful life is well within the realms of possibility.
Yet, these two tend to have the worst levels of inequality amongst industrialized nations. Such levels of inequality implies that it is overly simplistic to blame it all on each individual or solely on government policy and white-collar corruption. While ideological debates will always continue on the causes of inequality, both the political left and right agree that social cohesion social justice or family values, etc is suffering, risking the very fabric of society if it gets out of control.
He suggests that as well as a minimum wage, for the sake of social cohesion there should perhaps be a maximum wage , too. Crime and unhappiness stalk unequal societies. Inequality leads to instability, the last thing the country or world needs right now.
Even the former hardline conservative head of the International Monetary Fund, Michel Camdessus, has come to the conclusion that the widening gaps between rich and poor within nations is morally outrageous, economically wasteful and potentially socially explosive.
Above subsistence levels, what undermines our sense of well-being most is not our absolute income levels, but how big the gaps are between us and our peers. Allowing the super-rich to live apart from society is as damaging in its own way as the exclusion of the poorest. It seems, however, that neoliberal economic ideology may lead many to think inequality is not important. It looked into a scenario of what would happen in a few years if the growing inequality in the United Kingdom continued to widen.
While the predictions of what would happen are always tough to make, the documentary noted some important issues that are already present, and that also parallel many parts of the world today.
In summary, the documentary noted the increasing alienation and exclusion of people in society where inequality was high, but if government tried to do something about it, they would face a powerful obstacle: The remainder of this subsection provides more details:.
Gated communities , while providing an opportunity to develop otherwise derelict areas, also represents a sign of growing inequality, whereby those who can afford to do so live in areas where security is paid for and managed to ensure undesirables are kept out.
While individuals are making understandable decisions regarding their security, there is the additional effect of cutting off from the rest of society, leading to consequences such as:. While this phenomenon is rarely discussed in the U. These are times when the welfare state is failing people because it gives people a false sense of security and uses an element of coercion payment of taxes to pay for the services.
Yet, at the same time, the documentary noted, what is making this situation more complicated is that the super rich are taking advantage of globalization and all the loop holes it provides, such as off-shore tax havens. As a result, there is less the state is able to do, leading to further frustrations. At the same time, in U. This is in response to the increase in crime, an effect of inequality. But this has important implications. However, policing is meant to be more than protecting things of material value; the police are supposed to have social and human concerns for society as well, something a private security firm neither is mandated to have, nor is usually created for.
Due to the different roles, the costs, structures and accountability are also different. If crime is perceived to be increasing and the police are not seen as trusted, people can, and do take actions into their own hands. Wealthier people of course can afford to take more measures. In theory then, one of the many things that makes up a functioning, stable and democratic society is an uncorrupted judicial system and law enforcement.
Addressing the root causes of inequality would therefore seem to be where the challenge lies. The political costs of inequality are recognized and accepted as being too high. The economic costs of fighting effects are also high. Citing some research, the BBC also noted that for each dollar spent on poverty causes, seven dollars was saved on consequences.
Unfortunately, governments are in a difficult situation, because they can try to address inequality, but they will anger the rich. In May , the BBC aired another documentary related to inequality, called The Experiment , where they showed in detail how inequality can turn good people to evil.
Inequality is also characterized by a concentration of wealth, which means a concentration of political power. Historically, one of the main reasons for continued poverty has been in order to maintain this power. In the developing world, there is a pattern of inequality caused by the powerful subjugating the poor and keeping them dependent.
Outside influence is often a large factor and access to trade and resources is the usual cause. It is often asked why the people of these countries do not stand up for themselves. In most cases when they do, they face incredible and often violent oppression from their ruling elites and from outsiders who see their national interests threatened. Everyone has the right to work, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection for himself and his family [and] an existence worthy of human dignity … Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well being of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care.
And contrast that with the following around the same time, from a key superpower that helped create the United Nations. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts.
The less we are then hampered by idealistic slogans, the better. We should make a careful study to see what parts of the Pacific and Far Eastern world are absolutely vital to our security, and we should concentrate our policy on seeing to it that those areas remain in hands which we can control or rely on. While it is recognized that strong institutions, a functioning and non-corrupt democracy, an impartial media, equitable distribution of land and a well structured judicial system and other such factors , etc.
Often, it can be a very large sector. For example, those likely to lose out in such an equalizing effect are the rich, elite power holders. This is a pattern seen throughout history. Take for example the medieval days of Europe where the wealthy of the time controlled land via a feudal ruling system and hence impoverished the common people intentionally. Trading superiority was maintained by raiding and plundering areas deemed as a threat. Summarizing from the works of the Institute for Economic Democracy:.
The discovery of the Americas, expansion of trade routes etc brought much wealth to these centers of empire which helped fuel the industrial revolution, which required even more resources and wealth to be appropriated, to continue this growth. Mass luxury consumption in Europe expanded as well as a result of the increased production from the industrial revolution.
But this had a further negative impact on the colonized nations, the country side , or the resource-providers. For example, to keep profits up and costs down, they used slavery where they could, sometimes transferring people across continents, introducing others when indigenous populations had either been wiped out, decimated, or proved too resistant in some way. Europeans also carved out artificial borders to reflect their territorial acquisitions, sometimes bringing different groups of people into the same borders that had never been forced to live together in such short times.
Some poorer countries today still suffer the effects of this. Many Europeans and their descendants around the world have tried to look back at history and ask how it was that Europe and the West prospered and rose to such prominence. The late Professor J. Race and Christianity in particular, Protestantism were often claimed to be a factor, too. Blaut Guilford Press, Except for religious conflicts and the petty wars of feudal lords, wars are primarily fought over resources and trade.
Is there any man, is there any woman, let me say any child here that does not know that the seed of war in the modern world is industrial and commercial rivalry? Plundering the countryside to maintain dominance and control of the wealth-producing process has been an age-old process. These mercantilist processes continue today. Those policies of plunder by raid have continued, but include a more sophisticated plunder by trade:.
The powerful and cunning had learned to plunder by trade centuries ago and societies ever since have been caught in the trap of those unequal trades. Once unequal trades were in place, restructuring to equal trade would mean the severing of arteries of commerce which provide the higher standard of living for the dominant society and collapse of those living standards would almost certainly trigger open revolt.
The world is trapped in that pattern of unequal trades yet today. The geopolitical events of the post World War II era have been crucial for their impacts on poverty and most other issues. Virtually the entire colonial world was breaking free, its resources would be turned to the care of its own people, and those resources could no longer be siphoned to the old imperial-centers-of-capital for a fraction of their value. What Western nations were observing, of course, was the same potential loss of the resources and markets of their countryside as the cities of Europe had experienced centuries earlier.
The domestic prosperity worried about was only their own and the constantly expanding trade were unequal trades maintaining the prosperity of the developed world and the impoverishment of the undeveloped world as the imperial-centers-of-capital siphoned the natural wealth of their countryside to themselves.
The managers-of-state had to avert that crisis. While European nations are now more cooperative amongst themselves in comparison to the horrors of World War II and the U. Prosperity for a few has increased, as has poverty for the majority. Structural Adjustment SAP , as described in a previous section on this web site, is an example of that dependency. Neoliberal economic ideology has been almost blindly prescribed to poor countries to open up their economies.
The idea is that opening markets for foreign investment will also help improve exports and contribute to economic growth. Cutting back on social spending e. But what ends up happening is the poorer nations lose their space to develop their own policies and local businesses end up competing with well-established multinationals, sometimes themselves subsidized hinting a more mercantilist economic policy for the rich, even though free market capitalism is the claim and the prescription for others.
Hence, many back the economic neoliberal policies without realizing the background to it. It is another example that while international trade and globalization is what probably most would like to see, the reality of it is that it is not matching the rhetoric that is broadcast. The Third World remains poor because the powerful strive to dominate every choke-point of commerce. One key choke-point is political control through the co-respective support of local elites.
Where loyalty is lacking, money will be spent to purchase it. If a government cannot be bought or otherwise controlled, corrupt groups will be financed and armed to overthrow that government and, in extreme cases, another country will be financed to attack and defeat it. An enormous proportion of the income of nations and individuals, nowadays, is blood money: Therefore the most prudent nation is the nation which is in the best position to levy blackmail.
To find out more about the political dimensions of the economy of the world and to see the detailed links between history how it is both told and repeated , politics that are always at play and the effects on the economy the world over, visit the Institute for Economic Democracy web site. It provides much more in-depth research into these backgrounds and in far more detail than what I have summarized above.
With this in mind, why would so many people not oppose such things? There are many reasons, including:. The smart way to keep people passive and obedient is to strictly limit the spectrum of acceptable opinion, but allow very lively debate within that spectrum—even encourage the more critical and dissident views. Besides the necessity of a job or other source of income for survival, people need to feel that they are good and useful to society.
Few even admit, even to themselves, that their hard work may not be fully productive. This emotional shield requires most people to say with equal sincerity that those on welfare are lazy, ignorant, and nonfunctional. Those above the poverty level vigorously insist that they are honest and productive and fulfill a social need. It is important to their emotional well-being that they believe this. They dare not acknowledge that their segment of the economy may have 30 to 70 percent more workers than necessary or that the displaced should have a relatively equal share of jobs and income.
This would expose their redundancy and, under current social rules, undermine their moral claim to their share. Such an admission could lead to the loss of their economic niche in society. They would then have to find another territory within the economy or drop into poverty themselves.
Smith, quoted above, also points out and details in his work how we have moved from plunder by raid to plunder by trade in recent centuries. And societies are so accustomed to long struggles for improved living standards that to think it could be done much faster seems irrational. Governments now do this more than ever because the poor are rooted, stationary, slow ; whereas the big money is nomadic and travels at the speed of bytes.
Stationary money of local businesses, professionals, wage and salary earners will be taxed to the limit for the simple reason that it can be got at. The World Bank is a major international institution involved in poverty and development.
It has the capacity to lend a lot of money and expertise to developing countries and advise on development matters. The Bank regards this as its flagship report. Most mainstream economists use this report in some way or form, and it is one of the few reports on development that the US mainstream media reports on because it usually shows the US, and its policies that it prescribes to the rest of the world, in a favorable light. For the report, Ravi Kanbur, a professor from Cornell University had been asked to lead up the report team.
Kanbur won respect from NGO circles as he tried to be inclusive and take in a wide range of views, something the Bank has been criticized for not doing which is a problem in itself! However, as the report was to be published, he resigned because he was unreasonably pressured by the Bank to tone down sections on globalization, which, amongst other things called for developing nations to accept market neoliberalism cautiously.
The World Bank was apparently influenced itself by the US Treasury on this—this is not new though; critics have long pointed out that the Bank is very much influenced by the US, thus affecting the chance of real progress being made on poverty issues around the world. The following quotes collected from the Bretton Woods Project, reveal some interesting insights:.
The Washington Consensus has emerged from the Asia Crisis with its faith in free markets only slightly shaken. Poverty eradication is now the menu, but the main dish is still growth and market liberalisation, with social safety nets added as a side dish, and social capital scattered over it as a relish.
The overall implication of the resignation is fairly clear. The US does not want the World Bank to stray too far from its agenda of economic growth and market liberalisation. To keep the Bank afloat Wolfensohn has to steer between two major constituencies.
The first are the critics, the second is the US Treasury. The World Bank has often come under criticism for its development projects not actually helping the societies that they claimed they will. One such example is the numerous dam projects that have seen lives devastated, where millions have been displaced and people have not seen the benefits promised, while at the same time, the environment has degraded and crucial arable land has been flooded.
These have had devastating consequences for much of the third world, though benefiting the First World. Another example involves a recent Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline project , which started construction in The World Bank had also stressed commitments to ensure policies were observed that would protect society and the environment, while helping millions of poor in Chad out of extreme poverty Chad is the fifth poorest country in the world and also providing land-locked Cameroon with much needed revenue.
However their participation and stated commitment to poverty-combating development gave political backing that allowed multinational oil companies who were the main investors to raise sufficient capital on the international capital markets, which they would not have been able to otherwise do. The World Bank had therefore highlighted this project as a prototype for the extractive industry, designed to carry oil wealth not to a few but to the mass of the poor. AfricaFiles is an organization about African issues from the perspective of human rights, economic justice, and African perspective and alternative analysis.
AfricaFiles also, interestingly, suggested the World Bank use its precious resources to support more renewable energy sources development rather than oil, which has had so much political, economic and environmental problems associated with it.