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That keeps me safe. He is the current president of the German Society for Naturopathic Medicine. Edvard Moser married May-Britt Moser in when they were both students. Outside of wealthy circles, dependant on others. Fears from nature- …predators? Elementary teacher and Master of Education degree candidate Malana Willis observes that The dynamic process that individual students engage in as they interact with learning is happening all the time with all of our students. Find your tribe and choose the strengths you want from it -- and ignore the rest.

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Ajit Vadakayil

They felt themselves to be part of this web, part of its mystery - and their own lives as an intimate expression of its rhythmic being. They saw life and death as alternate phases of an eternally regenerative cycle rather than as polarised opposites.

At the present time with life divided into subject ourselves and object everything else we have all but lost this participatory sense of knowledge as experience. We do not differentiate between knowledge as information and knowledge as experience. Participatory consciousness began to fade with the discovery of writing and the development of left-hemispheric linear thinking - from about BC.

The emphasis of the whole Axial Age from BC and, more specifically, of Judeo-Christian civilization has been on the effort to separate from instinct, to separate from nature and body and to repress and control the instincts, particularly the sexual instinct, as something inferior and threatening, even evil and sinful. This suspicion, repression and control within went hand in hand with the compulsion to conquer and control the environment and enemies without.

The one was, I believe, the inevitable corollary of the other. Now however, as we are becoming aware of the negative effects of this double alienation from nature, which perhaps could not be helped as it was part of the process of separating from nature and becoming self-conscious, many of us are trying to recover what was lost - to revalue those aspects of life that were designated feminine, inferior and subject to our control, and to reconnect nature, soul and body, bringing together the intellectual intelligence of the head with the emotional intelligence of the heart.

Many women are at the forefront of this endeavour. As Candace Pert writes: The heart of science is feminine. Science at its most exalted is a truth-seeking endeavor, which encompasses the values of cooperation and communication, based on trust - trust in ourselves and in one another. The science I have come to know and love is unifying, spontaneous, intuitive, caring - a process more akin to surrender than to domination.

I have come to believe that science, at its very core, is a spiritual endeavor. Some of my best insights have come to me through what I can only call a mystical process. It's like having God whisper in your ear. It's this inner voice that we scientists must come to trust. We must stop worshipping a dispassionate "truth" and expecting the experts to lead us to it.

There's a higher intelligence, one that comes to us via our very molecules and results from our participation in a system far greater than the small, circumscribed one we call "ego," the world we receive from our five senses alone.

In this seminar and the next 9 we are going down into the "molecules of emotion", down into what we are unconscious of - the different inter-related systems of the body which affect not only our physical well-being but also our mental and emotional well-being. We are going to look at how the age-old instinctive habits of the older brain system - known as the limbic system - affect and to a large extent control the way we behave.

The human personality or ego, as it is called in the language of psychology, is deeply rooted in the limbic system. Exploring the interaction between this older 'unconscious' brain system and the newer neo-cortical one helps us to understand, in terms of brain chemistry and neuronal connections, why the instincts and emotions are so powerful, why they can have a positive or negative effect on our lives and why it takes a great deal of insight and attention to become aware of the unconscious habits of response and unconscious emotions that are stored in our cellular memories.

It may be helpful to bear in mind what Jung wrote about the inter-connectedness of psyche and body: A wrong functioning of the psyche can do much to injure the body, just as conversely a bodily illness can affect the psyche; for psyche and body are not separate entities, but one and the same life. Thus there is seldom a bodily ailment that does not show psychic complications, even if it is not psychically caused.

Within the cellular memory of our bodies we carry an incredibly ancient genetic programming that is embodied in different systems that interact with each other through a neuronal web of staggering complexity. Until this century and even these last few years, it has not been possible to understand their intimate involvement with each other and their effect on our lives and our behaviour. The instinctual reflexes and neuronal circuits of the limbic system are incorporated into the very structure of our emotional responses and even the thought processes that we like to think are so objective and rational.

We are still, so to speak, relatively unconscious in relation to all that is still to be discovered in relation to the psyche.

This does not mean that we need to outgrow and discard instincts but rather that we need to understand and relate to them better than we do so that we are not living in a state of alienation from or unconscious conflict with them. The 3 integrated brain systems 1. Together these 2 brains form the limbic system. A larger skull cavity allowed the capacity for a more complex nervous system. With the coming of Homo Sapiens all that is specifically human was added to this foundation - the frontal lobes: The brain has developed from the spinal column of the earliest vertebrates to the highly developed cerebral cortex of modern man and woman.

The capacity for reflective thought and self-awareness, imagination and refined feelings that is now available to us has grown out of age-old primordial instincts.

These have not disappeared or been outgrown. They still influence and even control us. The limbic older brain system is connected through neurological pathways with all parts of the more recently developed frontal lobes of the neocortex.

This gives the older centres immense power to influence and at times overwhelm the "rational" brain. Very archaic instincts can be present in emotions, thoughts, feelings and actions. If access to this right hemisphere is blocked off by the left's repression and control of it, then it is difficult for these instincts to reach conscious awareness. The only way they can manifest is as a compulsion such as anorexia or bulimia, or pulling tufts of hair out , a phobia, a neurosis or a violent explosion of emotion.

The structure of the human brain is enormously complex. It contains about ten billion nerve cells neurons which are interlinked in a vast network through billion junctions synapses.

The whole brain can be divided into subsections, or subnetworks, which communicate with each other. All this results in intricate patterns of interwined webs, networks nesting with larger networks. These function in a non-linear way - messages travel along a cyclical path, which may become a feedback loop. One interesting fact - it is thought that speech and music developed from the mother-child bonding of mammals, then of humans and the sounds made by the mother to the child and by the child's different kinds of cries that the mother recognised and responded to.

Emotional attachment of each to the other developed through different kinds of sound. Today sound and emotional response are linked through these older brain centres. There is a strong connection between the auditory cortex and the limbic brain and this explains why there is a marked emotional response to music and why discordant music can adversely affect and even damage the nervous system.

In it was discovered Walter Cannon, The Wisdom of the Body that there was a single nerve, called the vagus, which exited at the back of the brain through a hole in the bottom of the skull, then split to run down the bundles of nerve cells, or ganglia along either side of the spinal cord to send branches to many organs, including the pupils of the eyes, the salivary glands, the heart, the bronchi of the lungs, the stomach, the intestines, the bladder, the sex organs and the adrenal glands.

When Cannon stimulated the vagus through electrodes implanted in the hypothalamus just above the pituitary gland, he found that there were physiological changes in all these organs consistent with the body's response to an emergency. Blood, for example, was re-routed from the internal organs of digestion to the muscles.

An increase of adrenaline stimulated the heart and caused the liver to release extra sugar for instant energy. Until the 's it was thought that the brain and the central nervous system functioned like an electrical communication system.

The neurons or nerve cells cell-like body with a tail-like axon and treelike dendrites formed something like a telephone system with trillions of miles of criss-crossing wiring. This was the "electrical" brain. But then scientists discovered the "chemical" brain in the 's and the ligand-receptor system that represented a second nervous system that was far more ancient and far more basic to the organism of the human body. There were peptides such as endorphins that were being made inside cells long before there were dendrites, axons or neurons - in fact long before there were brains.

A breakthrough in involving the immune system discovered that there was a bodywide network of information which provided a biochemical basis for the emotions. Then receptors and their ligands binding agents came to be seen as "information molecules" - the basic units of a language used by cells throughout the organism to communicate across the endocrine, neurological, gastrointestinal and immune systems.

The hum of the receptors as they bind to their many ligands, often in the furthest parts of the organism, creates an integration of structure and function that allows the organism to run smoothly and intelligently.

Scientists could observe that drugs like heroin, marijuana, librium, LSD etc. The concept of receptors tiny keyholes where drugs like morphine 'fit' for chemicals introduced from outside the body was not known then. But the discovery of the opiate or morphine receptor by Candace Pert in drew together every field of medicine, uniting endocrinology, neurophysiology and immunology and connected biology and psychology.

The next step was to find the substance in the body that gave rise to the same feelings of bliss as morphine did when introduced from the outside. That chemical was found to be endorphin or endogenous morphine. Then they had to find the ligand or binding agent that bound the chemical to the receptor. From there scientists began to map the distribution of the neuropeptides or chemicals related to emotional states and discovered these were in the limbic brain as well as the neo-cortex and all over the body, including the intestines.

But they are densest in the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex which share many interconnections with the amygdala see below and diagram. Peptides or neuropeptides facilitate the conversation between the nervous system and the immune system.

They connect the brain, the hormonal system and the immune system in a network of communication between brain and body through neuropeptides or "molecules of emotion". They are a single family of molecular messengers. Peptides of them are the universal biochemical language of the emotions. They interlink and integrate mental, emotional and biological activities. They can alter behaviour and mood states. Peptides are not only found in the limbic system; the entire intestine is lined with them.

Wherever information is being relayed to the bodymind organism through the five senses - sight, smell, sound, taste and touch - there is a grouping of neuro-peptides; particular at the dorsal horn or back side of the spinal column where all incoming bodily sensations are filtered. All sensory information undergoes a filtering process as it travels across one or more synapses, eventually but not always reaching the areas of the higher mental processes, in the frontal lobes.

Candace Pert discovered and proved the relationship which exists between these peptides, the neuro-chemistry of the body and our emotions.

She wanted to answer the question: How can emotions transform the body, either creating disease or healing it, maintaining health or undermining it? And she discovered that our emotions are the crucial link between mind and body.

She realised that every change in the physiological state is accompanied by an appropriate change in the emotional state and every change in the emotional state is accompanied by a change in the physiological state and she discovered that the neuropeptides were the connecting factor between emotions and physiological processes.

The new science of psycho-neuro-immunology is redefining the connection between mind and body. We can no longer speak of body and mind as separate systems or entities.

Bodymind - one word, no hyphen. Bodymind is a single organism pulsing with neuropeptide messengers that flow in a continuous loop from the brain to every cell in our body, giving rise to emotions and responding to emotions.

Neurotransmitters originate in a part of the frontal cortex of the brain in a format that is exclusive to our species. There are at least chemicals besides opiate receptors that connect the brain, the hormonal system and the immune system, many of them the peptides that mediate our emotions.

All thoughts and all bodily functions involve peptides chemicals. Each peptide chemical mediates a particular emotional state. All our perceptions and thoughts are coloured by emotions. There is no such thing as objective, rational thought. A chemical network of peptides integrates our mental, emotional and biological activities. So where are the emotions?

It used to be thought that mind and consciousness were located in the brain but the answer is really quite shocking. The emotions are happening everywhere simultaneously and we really need to learn to think of ourselves in a totally new way. Emotions are in the digestive system, in the immune system, in the endocrine system etc. Like information, emotions are the connecting link between the two realms of mind and body, just as the peptides and their receptors are in the chemical sphere.

The neuro-peptides or 'molecules of emotion' are found not just in every system of the body but running every system of the body, connecting every system of the body to every other system. Wherever they are, they give rise to emotions. This means that our body is really our subconscious mind. The conclusion of these last twenty years of research is that "In the human organism, the nervous system, the immune system, and the endocrine system form a single cognitive network.

What keeps everything straight and systematic are the receptors - each of which has its own peptide or chemical. The nervous system consists of the brain and network of nerve cells throughout the body and is the foundation of memory, thought, and emotion.

The immune system , consists of the spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes and immune cells. It is the body's defence system, responsible for tissue integrity and controlling wound healing and tissue repair. The immune system is capable of sending information to the brain via immunopeptides and of receiving information from the brain via neuropeptides.

The immune system can communicate not only with the endocrine system but with the nervous system and the brain as well. Previously the immune system had always been considered separate from the other systems but now it is known to be in constant communication with them. The endocrine system , consisting of glands and hormones, is the body's main regulatory system, controlling and integrating various bodily functions.

The limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary system is the major bodymind information transmitter; translating the language of the mind imagery, sensations, what is heard and seen into the chemical reactions or responses of the body, down to the molecular level and vice versa.

But in fact these cannot really be separated from each other because they continually interact with each other. This throws the hormonal system out of balance and puts stress on the other hormones. Unconscious toxic emotions — anger, guilt, anxiety, fear, depression — affect the immune system, the digestive system, the circulatory system and the hormonal system because these all interact with each other instantaneously.

Children who have been abused or subjected to a chronically abusive environment grow up to be hyper-vigilant of other people's moods and body language as a protective measure.

This is a symptom of trauma. They may have forgotten the situation which originally caused the hypervigilance. They sense changes in mood, or a subtle inflexion in the voice or body language long before others do. This hypervigilance affects every system in the body, programming it to constant arousal. It depresses the immune system. The amygdala see diagram is an almond-shaped cluster of interconnected structures just above the brainstem near the bottom of the limbic ring, one on each side of the brain, toward the side of the head above the ears.

It acts as a storehouse of emotional memory. The amygdala is one the main links between the older limbic brain and the relatively newly developed cerebral cortex. A visual signal goes from the retina of the eye to the thalamus, where it is translated into the language of the brain. Most of the message then goes to the visual cortex at the back of head where it is analysed and assessed for meaning and appropriate response.

If that response is emotional, a signal goes to the amygdala to activate the emotional centres. But a smaller portion of the original signal takes an 'emergency route' or short-cut via a small nucleus of neurons direct from the thalamus to the amygdala in a much faster transmission, allowing an instantaneous though less precise response.

The amygdala can trigger an instinctive response before the cortical centres have fully understood what is happening. This is a life-preserving reflex. Survival may depend on 's of a second response. But it also means that emotions can bypass the neocortex. Emotion can overwhelm the 'rational' mind and cause us to react 'blindly' on impulse. Intense joy comes through the amygdala as well as fear, grief and anger. Tears are triggered by the amygdala and it responds immediately to the person being held, stroked or comforted.

The amygdala is like a guardian at the gate - challenging every experience "Is this something that is dangerous, that will hurt, that I fear? Conversely it reacts instantaneously to something that conveys safety, happiness, physical well-being such as stroking or warm water. Eysenck's three-factor model of personality was a causal theory of personality based on activation of reticular formation and limbic system. The reticular formation is a region in the brainstem that is involved in mediating arousal and consciousness.

The limbic system is involved in mediating emotion, behavior, motivation, and long-term memory. Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory RST is based on the idea that there are three brain systems that all differently respond to rewarding and punishing stimuli. This model of personality is based on the idea that different responses to punishing, rewarding, and novel stimuli the main characteristics of the human mind is caused by an interaction of the three dimensions below:.

In one MRI study, [15] Novelty Seeking correlated with increased grey matter volume in regions of the cingulate cortex , Harm Avoidance correlated with decreased grey matter volume in the orbitofrontal, occipital, and parietal cortex. Reward Dependence correlated with decreased grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus.

The five factor model is a widely used personality assessment that describes five core traits that a person possesses:. Using an MRI, one study [16] found correlation between the volumes of certain brain areas with each of the five traits in the Five Factor Model.

Conscientiousness was associated with increased volume in the lateral prefrontal cortex , a region involved in planning and the voluntary control of behavior. Extraversion was associated with increased volume of medial orbitofrontal cortex , a region involved in processing reward information.

Agreeableness was associated with increased volume in regions that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals. Neuroticism was associated with increased volume of brain regions associated with threat, punishment, and negative emotions.

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Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Ann N Y Acad Sci. From Ivan Pavlov to Jeffrey Gray". International Journal of Psychophysiology. Biology of personality and individual differences. An Experimental Study", H.

Genomic Imaging of Extraversion". Social and Personality Psychology Compass. Biosocial Bases of Sensation Seeking". What can whole genome expression data tell us about the ecology and evolution of personality?. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Retrieved September 10, , from http: Molecular Genetics and the Human Personality: Neurobiological basis of temperament: Towards a better understanding of psychopathology. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30 4 , Robert; Venneri, Annalena Brain Structure and the Big Five".

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This page was last edited on 8 August , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This method measures electrical activity on the surface of the brain through the scalp, and has the high temporal resolution. Before the advent of brain imaging technology, the only method to measure brain activity was electroencephalography EEG. The method allows for viewing the 3D structure of the brain.

Functional brain imaging allows for viewing 3D brain activity, shown as flow of blood or chemicals in the brain. The development of brain imaging technology has not only allowed for, but has served as a catalyst to the investigation of how the brain contributes to personality. This method is used to analyze a gene-trait link, by measuring the structure and function of genes in the brain. The use of molecular genetics in biology-based personality research is expected to grow.

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