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It is also used for sickle cell disease, itching, rosacea, hair loss, psoriasis, eczema, acne, a blood disorder called thalassemia, Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, Hansen's disease, and cystic fibrosis. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. Some evidence also shows that zinc-containing toothpaste can reduce existing plaque. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Zhongguo Linchuant Kangfu ;8: In some people, zinc might cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, metallic taste, kidney and stomach damage, and other side effects.
States such as the United Kingdom , France and Switzerland comprised distinct ethnic groups from their formation and have likewise experienced substantial immigration, resulting in what has been termed " multicultural " societies especially in large cities. The states of the New World were multi-ethnic from the onset, as they were formed as colonies imposed on existing indigenous populations.
In recent decades feminist scholars most notably Nira Yuval-Davis  have drawn attention to the fundamental ways in which women participate in the creation and reproduction of ethnic and national categories. Though these categories are usually discussed as belonging to the public, political sphere, they are upheld within the private, family sphere to a great extent.
Race and ethnicity are considered [ by whom? Ethnicity is used as a matter of cultural identity of a group, often based on shared ancestry, language and cultural traditions, while race is applied as a pseudoscientific grouping, based on physical similarities within groups.
Race is a more controversial subject than ethnicity, due to common political use of the term. It is assumed [ by whom?
Before Weber , race and ethnicity were primarily seen as two aspects of the same thing. Around and before, the essentialist primordialist understanding of ethnicity predominated: Because serious errors of this kind are habitually committed when the term 'race' is used in popular parlance, it would be better when speaking of human races to drop the term 'race' altogether and speak of 'ethnic groups'.
In anthropologist David Craig Griffith summed up forty years of ethnographic research, arguing that racial and ethnic categories are symbolic markers for different ways that people from different parts of the world have been incorporated into a global economy:. The opposing interests that divide the working classes are further reinforced through appeals to "racial" and "ethnic" distinctions.
Such appeals serve to allocate different categories of workers to rungs on the scale of labor markets, relegating stigmatized populations to the lower levels and insulating the higher echelons from competition from below. Capitalism did not create all the distinctions of ethnicity and race that function to set off categories of workers from one another. It is, nevertheless, the process of labor mobilization under capitalism that imparts to these distinctions their effective values. According to Wolf, racial categories were constructed and incorporated during the period of European mercantile expansion , and ethnic groupings during the period of capitalist expansion.
Writing in about the usage of the term "ethnic" in the ordinary language of Great Britain and the United States , Wallman noted that. The term 'ethnic' popularly connotes '[race]' in Britain, only less precisely, and with a lighter value load.
In North America, by contrast, '[race]' most commonly means color, and 'ethnics' are the descendants of relatively recent immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. In effect there are no 'ethnics'; there are only 'ethnic relations'. Sometimes ethnic groups are subject to prejudicial attitudes and actions by the state or its constituents.
In the 20th century, people began to argue that conflicts among ethnic groups or between members of an ethnic group and the state can and should be resolved in one of two ways. Some, like Jürgen Habermas and Bruce Barry , have argued that the legitimacy of modern states must be based on a notion of political rights of autonomous individual subjects.
According to this view, the state should not acknowledge ethnic, national or racial identity but rather instead enforce political and legal equality of all individuals.
Others, like Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka , argue that the notion of the autonomous individual is itself a cultural construct. According to this view, states must recognize ethnic identity and develop processes through which the particular needs of ethnic groups can be accommodated within the boundaries of the nation-state. The 19th century saw the development of the political ideology of ethnic nationalism , when the concept of race was tied to nationalism , first by German theorists including Johann Gottfried von Herder.
Instances of societies focusing on ethnic ties, arguably to the exclusion of history or historical context, have resulted in the justification of nationalist goals. Two periods frequently cited as examples of this are the 19th century consolidation and expansion of the German Empire and the 20th century Nazi Germany. Each promoted the pan-ethnic idea that these governments were only acquiring lands that had always been inhabited by ethnic Germans.
The history of late-comers to the nation-state model, such as those arising in the Near East and south-eastern Europe out of the dissolution of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires, as well as those arising out of the former USSR, is marked by inter-ethnic conflicts.
Such conflicts usually occur within multi-ethnic states, as opposed to between them, as in other regions of the world. Thus, the conflicts are often misleadingly labelled and characterized as civil wars when they are inter-ethnic conflicts in a multi-ethnic state. Ethnic groups in Africa number in the hundreds, each generally having its own language or dialect of a language and culture. Many ethnic groups and nations of Africa qualify, although some groups are of a size larger than a tribal society.
These mostly originate with the Sahelian kingdoms of the medieval period, such as that of the Akan , deriving from Bonoman 11th century then the Kingdom of Ashanti 17th century. There is an abundance of ethnic groups throughout Asia , with adaptations to the climate zones of Asia, which can be Arctic, subarctic, temperate, subtropical or tropical. The ethnic groups have adapted to mountains, deserts, grasslands, and forests. On the coasts of Asia, the ethnic groups have adopted various methods of harvest and transport.
The colonization of Asia was largely ended in the 20th century, with national drives for independence and self-determination across the continent. Europe has a large number of ethnic groups; Pan and Pfeil count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities within every state they inhabit although they may form local regional majorities within a sub-national entity.
A number of European countries, including France ,  and Switzerland do not collect information on the ethnicity of their resident population. The largest group are the Tatars 3. Many of the smaller groups are found in the Asian part of Russia see Indigenous peoples of Siberia.
An example of a largely nomadic ethnic group in Europe is the Roma , pejoratively known as Gypsies. They originated from India and speak the Romani language. Oxford English Dictionary Second edition, online version as of , s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Ethnicity disambiguation. It is not to be confused with the academic journal. Before the s, the Korowai people of Papua were an uncontacted people.
Their population numbers no more than 3, Archaeological Biological Cultural Linguistic Social. Actor—network theory Alliance theory Cross-cultural studies Cultural materialism Culture theory Diffusionism Feminism Historical particularism Boasian anthropology Functionalism Interpretive Performance studies Political economy Practice theory Structuralism Post-structuralism Systems theory.
Anthropologists by nationality Anthropology by year Bibliography Journals List of indigenous peoples Organizations. Nation state and minority group. Circumscription theory Legal anthropology Left—right paradigm State formation Political economy in anthropology Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems.
Adamson Hoebel Georges Balandier F. Ethnic groups in Africa. Ethnic groups in Asia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ethnic groups in Europe.
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. Ethnic groups in South America. Retrieved 28 December An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology 9th ed. In essence, an ethnic group is a named social category of people based on perceptions of shared social experience or one's ancestors' experiences. Members of the ethnic group see themselves as sharing cultural traditions and history that distinguish them from other groups.
Thus, ethnic groups, at least theoretically, cut across socioeconomic class differences, drawing members from all strata of the population. Chapman, History and Ethnicity London , pp. Ethnicity Oxford , pp. Problem and Focus in Anthropology", Annu. The modern usage definition of the Oxford English Dictionary is: Pertaining to race; peculiar to a race or nation; ethnological.
Also, pertaining to or having common racial, cultural, religious, or linguistic characteristics, esp. Equatorians Oxford English Dictionary Second edition, online version as of , s. Polinskaya, "Shared sanctuaries and the gods of others: On the meaning Of 'common' in Herodotus 8. Brill, , Leoussi, Steven Grosby, Nationalism and Ethnosymbolism: The Government of Canada.
Ethnicity is a fundamental factor in human life: The Quest for Modernity in Africa and Asia. An essay on power and symbolism in complex society. Eriksen "Ethnic identity, national identity and intergroup conflict: The significance of personal experiences" in Ashmore, Jussim, Wilder eds. Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction , pp.
A critique", Nations and Nationalism 13 1 , , 19— International Journal of Postcolonial Studies. A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. Retrieved 7 January Issues and Readings , ed. Little and Barbara H. Early medieval peoples were far less homogeneous than often thought, and Pohl follows Reinhard Wenskus, Stammesbildung und Verfassung. Cologne and Graz , whose researches into the "ethnogenesis" of the German peoples convinced him that the idea of common origin, as expressed by Isidore of Seville Gens est multitudo ab uno principio orta "a people is a multitude stemming from one origin" which continues in the original Etymologiae IX.
Identities within Global Coloniality". University of California Press. The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Wickens, Gerald E; Lowe, Pat Pachycauls of Africa, Madagascar and Australia.
Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen Article that explores the social construction of ethnicity and race. Ethnic groups and boundaries. The social organization of culture difference , Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, Beard, David and Kenneth Gloag. Musicology, The Key Concepts. London and New York: Craig, Gary, et al. Native Peoples of the World: Anthropological Perspectives , London: Nutrigenic Helper is designed for managing custom personalized diets for treating, controlling and preventing nutritional health issues such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, overweight, and diseases risks associated with nutritional conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
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