Sorry! BestBuy.ca can’t be accessed through your browser.

Ghee Composition and its Role in the Ketogenic Diet

International News
Hat tip to Melissa McEwen: And what objections are there to carrying out an experiment like this in the non-fasted state? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Jul;63 7: But we see in studies that most healthy young guys already eat around 1. One study has reported a greater increase in net muscle balance following full-fat milk compared to fat-free milk although this study used the 2 pool arterio-venous model which is not the most reliable measurement.

ATHLEAN RX-1 X-CITE

The Ultimate Guide to Muscle Protein Synthesis

Group based training for self-management strategies in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: Cochran J , Conn VS. Meta-analysis of quality of life outcomes following diabetes self-management training.

Diabetes Educ ; Diabetes self-management education reduces risk of all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes patients: Endocrine ; Facilitating healthy coping in patients with diabetes: Nutritionist visits, diabetes classes, and hospitalization rates and charges: Assessing the value of the diabetes educator.

One-year outcomes of diabetes self-management training among Medicare beneficiaries newly diagnosed with diabetes. Med Care ; A systematic review of interventions to improve diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations. Culturally appropriate health education for type 2 diabetes mellitus in ethnic minority groups. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ;3: Ann Intern Med ; A systematic review of diabetes self-care interventions for older, African American, or Latino adults.

Peyrot M , Rubin RR. Behavioral and psychosocial interventions in diabetes: Comparative effectiveness of goal setting in diabetes mellitus group clinics: Individual patient education for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: Internet delivered diabetes self-management education: Diabetes Technol Ther ; Long-term outcomes of a Web-based diabetes prevention program: J Med Internet Res ; A systematic review of reviews evaluating technology-enabled diabetes self-management education and support.

J Diabetes Sci Technol ; The role of community health workers in diabetes: Curr Diab Rep ; Diabetes control with reciprocal peer support versus nurse care management: Peer mentoring and financial incentives to improve glucose control in African American veterans: Self-management education programmes by lay leaders for people with chronic conditions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: Assessing the value of diabetes education. Associations between self-management education and comprehensive diabetes clinical care.

Diabetes Spectr ; Health Educ Behav ; Diabetes self-management education and training among privately insured persons with newly diagnosed diabetes--United States, Reasons why patients referred to diabetes education programmes choose not to attend: Diabet Med ; Reconsidering cost-sharing for diabetes self-management education: Accessed 25 September Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes.

Nutrition practice guidelines for type 1 diabetes mellitus positively affect dietitian practices and patient outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc ; Effect of carbohydrate counting and medical nutritional therapy on glycaemic control in type 1 diabetic subjects: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics nutrition practice guideline for type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adults: J Acad Nutr Diet ; Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes UKPDS Lancet ; A simple meal plan emphasizing healthy food choices is as effective as an exchange-based meal plan for urban African Americans with type 2 diabetes.

Translating lifestyle intervention to practice in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: BMJ ; Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Nutrition practice guideline for type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adults: From pyramids to plates to patterns: Food groups and risk of all-cause mortality: Am J Clin Nutr ; Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on the need for antihyperglycemic drug therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: Am J Epidemiol ; Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: A comprehensive review of the literature supporting recommendations from the Canadian Diabetes Association for the use of a plant-based diet for management of type 2 diabetes.

Can J Diabetes ; Vegetarian diets in the prevention and management of diabetes and its complications.

The Diabetes Nutrition Education Study randomized controlled trial: Cardiometabolic risk factor changes observed in diabetes prevention programs in US settings: PLoS Med ; Combined diet and physical activity promotion programs to prevent type 2 diabetes among persons at increased risk: Lifestyle weight-loss intervention outcomes in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: Long-term effect of intensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes in real-world clinical practice: Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.

N Engl J Med ; Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: JAMA ; Update on prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in light of recent evidence: Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: Association of diet with glycated hemoglobin during intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial.

Macronutrients, food groups, and eating patterns in the management of diabetes: Thomas D , Elliott EJ. Low glycaemic index, or low glycaemic load, diets for diabetes mellitus. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. A critical review of low-carbohydrate diets in people with type 2 diabetes. Efficacy of low carbohydrate diet for type 2 diabetes mellitus management: Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; Comparison of low- and high-carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management: Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Nutr Diabetes ; 6: An online intervention comparing a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and lifestyle recommendations versus a plate method diet in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes: Department of Health and Human Services.

Dietary guidelines for Americans [Internet], Accessed 1 October Greater diet quality is associated with more optimal glycemic control in a longitudinal study of youth with type 1 diabetes.

Associations of nutrient intake with glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes: Effects of carbohydrate counting on glucose control and quality of life over 24 weeks in adult patients with type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: Glycaemic control and severe hypoglycaemia following training in flexible, intensive insulin therapy to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: Diabetologia ; Efficacy of carbohydrate counting in type 1 diabetes: Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 2: Impact of fat, protein, and glycemic index on postprandial glucose control in type 1 diabetes: Optimized mealtime insulin dosing for fat and protein in type 1 diabetes: Influence of dietary protein on postprandial blood glucose levels in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus using intensive insulin therapy.

Low-protein diet for diabetic nephropathy: Protein restriction for diabetic renal disease. Protein in optimal health: Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids [Internet], Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. Department of Health and Human Services; U. Dietary guidelines for Americans —, 8th edition[Internet], Accessed 17 October Dietary cis-monounsaturated fatty acids and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes.

Am J Clin Nutr ; 78 Suppl. Association of plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with type 2 diabetes: Association of specific dietary fats with total and cause-specific mortality.

One-year comparison of a high-monounsaturated fat diet with a high-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. A comparison of the influence of a high-fat diet enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids and conventional diet on weight loss and metabolic parameters in obese non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients.

Effects on health outcomes of a Mediterranean diet with no restriction on fat intake: Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: Circulation ; National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia: J Clin Lipidol ; 9 6 Suppl.

Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: Nutr Clin Pract ; A further subgroup analysis of the effects of the DASH diet and three dietary sodium levels on blood pressure: Am J Cardiol ; Circulation ; 25 Suppl. The association between dietary sodium intake, ESRD, and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes. Dietary salt intake and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Maillot M , Drewnowski A. A conflict between nutritionally adequate diets and meeting the dietary guidelines for sodium.

Am J Prev Med ; J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: Ann Fam Med ; Mitri J , Pittas AG. Vitamin D and diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; Dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity: A week randomized clinical trial investigating the potential for sucralose to affect glucose homeostasis. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; Miller PE , Perez V. Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight?

A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies. Int J Obes Lond ; Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: CMAJ ; Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Peters A , Laffel L , Eds.

Meta-analysis of the effect of structured exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. B-alanine improves punch force and frequency in amateur boxers during a simulated contest. Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. The absorption of orally supplied B-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis.

Amino acids, 30 3 , Performance and Relieves Muscle Soreness. Effect of L-arginine or L-citrulline oral supplementation on blood pressure and right ventricular function in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

Cardiology journal ;17 6: European Journal of Applied Physiology ; 2: Effects of L-citrulline oral supplementation on polymorphonuclear neutrophils oxidative burst and nitric oxide production after exercise. Free Radical Research ;43 9: Muscle glycogen supercompensation is enhanced by prior creatine supplementation.

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33 7 , The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race. Life Sciences, 75 16 , Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses. Journal of Athletic Training, 44 2 , An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures.

Osteoporosis International,17 12 , Bone density and fracture risk in men. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 13 12 , Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 10 2 , Mortality after all major types of osteoporotic fracture in men and women: The Lancet, , Creatine monohydrate and resistance training increase bone mineral content and density in older men. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 9 5 , Creatine in type 2 diabetes: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43 5 , Effects of creatine supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic training.

Amino Acids, 34 2 , Effect of oral creatine supplementation on human muscle GLUT4 protein content after immobilization. Diabetes, 50 1 , Effect of creatine supplementation during cast-induced immobilization on the preservation of muscle mass, strength, and endurance.

Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate. Effects of creatine on mental fatigue and cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation.

Neuroscience Research, 42 4 , Creatine supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single bout of resistance exercise. Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury. Annals of Neurology, 48 5 , Creatine-enhanced diet alters levels of lactate and free fatty acids after experimental brain injury. Neurochemical Research, 29 2 , Prevention of complications related to traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents with creatine administration: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 61 2 , Prevention of traumatic headache, dizziness and fatigue with creatine administration.

Acta Paediatrica, 97 1 , A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: Exercise, plasma composition and neurotransmission. Romanowski, W, and Grabiec S. The role of serotonin in the mechanism of central fatigue. Acta Physiol Pol The effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors on human behavior. Am J Clin Nutr Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans.

Brain Res Bull Neurotransmitter precursors for the treatment of depression. Neurotransmitter precursor amino acids in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia and Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc ;7: Int J Sports Med Biochim Biophys Acta Physiological Rev 72 1: Jpn Circ J Byull Eksp Biol Med Jpn J Pharmacol Sulfur Amino Acids Med Sci Sports Exer J Lipid Res 1: Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates and choline neurotransmitter synthesis.

Mt Sinai J Med ;55 1: Wurtman RJ, Hefti F. Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacol Rev ;32 4: Effects of electrical stimulation and choline availability on release and contents of acetylcholine and choline in superfused slices from rat striatum. J Physiol Paris ; Choline and cholinergic neurons. Release of acetylcholine from the vascular perfused rat phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm. Dieterich HA, Lindmar R. The role of choline in the release of acetylcholine in isolated hearts.

Rapid decline in acetylcholine release and content of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle after denervation. Choline citrate may enhance athletic performance. The influence of lecithin on plasma choline concentrations in biathletes and adolescent runners during exercise.

Eur J Appl Physiol ; Decreased plasma choline concentrations in marathon runners letter. Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists.

Med Sci Sports Exerc ;27 5: Hat tip to Chris Masterjohn: A theory of human life history evolution: The ecological basis of hunter-gatherer subsistence in African rain forests: In Case studies in human ecology, ed.

Plenum Press, , 55— Hat tip to Melissa McEwen: Relations des Jésuites de la Nouvelle-France. Quoted in Sahlins M. Full text , hat tip Mark Ayers. Why do people die in famines? Evidence from three island populations. Population Studies Mar;56 1: Apparent absence of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a traditional Melanesian island: Journal of Internal Medicine Mar; 3: The Kitava Study, www.

Oxford University Press, , Müller W et al. Origin and migration of the Alpine Iceman. Science Oct 31; USA Today, August 11, , www. Mortality rate as a function of age, , www. High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter-gatherers: Journal of Human Evolution Apr;52 4: Hat tip to John Hawks: Hunter-gatherer mortality, March 28, , http: Journal of Archaeological Science ; Evidence for protection by breast-feeding against infant deaths from infectious diseases in Brazil.

The Lancet Aug 8;2 Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: Archives of General Psychiatry May;65 5: Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm.

The Lancet Feb 1; Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota. Human milk in comparison to cow milk. In Textbook of gastroenterology and nutrition, ed. Raven Press, , — See also Prentice A. Constituents of human milk. Lipids in human milk. Lipids Dec;34 Butyric and caprylic acid constitute 5. Brain lipid concentrations in bipolar disorder.

Journal of Psychiatric Research Feb;44 3: Obligate role for ketone body oxidation in neonatal metabolic homeostasis.

The Journal of Biological Chemistry Mar 4; 9: In vitro fermentation of breast milk oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus gasseri. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jun;72 6: Ruiz-Palacios GM et al.

Campylobacter jejuni binds intestinal H O antigen Fuc alpha 1, 2Gal beta 1, 4GlcNAc , and fucosyloligosaccharides of human milk inhibit its binding and infection. The Journal of Biological Chemistry Apr 18; Oligosaccharides in human milk: Annual Review of Nutrition ; Coppa GV et al.

Changes in carbohydrate composition in human milk over 4 months of lactation. Pediatrics Mar;91 3: Nature Dec 23; Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids macronutrients. National Academies Press, , , www. Type of milk feeding affects hematological parameters and serum lipid profile in Japanese infants. Pediatrics International Mar 21, http: Low serum cholesterol in newborn babies, July 14, , http: HDL and immunity, April 12, , http: Blood lipids and infectious disease, part II, July 12, , http: Metabolic rate and organ size during growth from infancy to maturity and during late gestation and early infancy.

Pediatrics Jan;47 1 suppl 2: Advances in cell biology of blood-brain barrier transport. Seminars in Cell Biology Dec;2 6: Blood-brain barrier transport of glucose, free fatty acids, and ketone bodies. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ; The western lowland gorilla diet has implications for the health of humans and other hominoids.

Journal of Nutrition Oct; Hat tip to Barry Groves: Should all animals eat a high-fat, low-carb diet? Digestive physiology of perbivores, July 13, , http: Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Mar;56 3: Macronutrient diet selection in thirteen mouse strains. Self-selected macronutrient diet affects energy and glucose metabolism in brown fat-ablated mice.

Obesity Research Dec;11 Hat tip to Peter Dobromylskyj: Physiological insulin resistance, October 23, , http: The expensive tissue hypothesis: Current Anthropology Apr;36 2: In Food and evolution: Harris M, Ross EB. Temple University Press, , 93— Table 3. The human colon in evolution: The contribution of the large intestine to energy supplies in man.

A two-stage model of increased dietary quality in early hominid evolution: Khirurgiia Sofiia ;30 2: Sigmoid colon morphology in the population groups of Durban, South Africa, with special reference to sigmoid volvulus. Clinical Anatomy May;24 4: Is there a perfect diet? Ethnographic models, archaeological data, and the applicability of modern foraging theory.

In Hunter-gatherers in history, archaeology, and anthropology, ed. Berg, , —, at Hat tip to J Stanton: Big brains require an explanation, part III: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology Apr;33 2: Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D. Obesity Reviews May;6 2: Theall CL et al. Self-selection and regulation of protein: Journal of Nutrition Apr; 4: Protein selection by rats adapted to high or moderately low levels of dietary protein.

Speleogenesis of the Mount Elgon elephant caves, Kenya. GSA special papers , vol. Salt ingestion caves, International Journal of Speleology ;35 1 13— Hat tip to J. Association of the renin-sodium profile with the risk of myocardial infarction in patients with hypertension.

Hat tip to Chris Kresser: Shaking up the salt myth: Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Jul 6; 7: The danger of plant foods, June 18, , http: How to minimize hyperglycemic toxicity, October 20, , http: Adiposity in zoo gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla: Case Western Reserve University, February 17, , www.

Apes shed pounds while doubling calories on leafy diet, researcher finds. ScienceDaily, February 21, , www. Corrected weight loss data see errata is from Less EH. Hat tip to John Durant, personal communication. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: The effects of coadministration of dietary copper and zinc supplements on atherosclerosis, antioxidant enzymes and indices of lipid peroxidation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit.

International Journal of Experimental Pathology Oct;85 5: Lamb DJ et al. Dietary copper supplementation reduces atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed rabbit.

Atherosclerosis Sep; 1: Mineral content of the diet alters sucrose-induced obesity in rats. National Academies Press, , —6, , www. Labile protein reserves and protein turnover. Journal of Dairy Science Apr;60 4: Institute of Medicine Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids macronutrients.

The effect of dietary protein on carcinogenesis of aflatoxin. Archives of Pathology Feb;85 2: Protein-energy undernutrition in hospital in-patients.

British Journal of Nutrition Jun;83 6: The impact of malnutrition on kidney function. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism ;24 1: Recent advances in parenteral and enteral nutrition: Impaired gut barrier function in malnourished patients.

British Journal of Surgery Sep;83 9: Developmental sequel from early nutritional deficiencies: Conclusive and probability judgements. Journal of Nutrition Feb; 2S suppl: National Academies Press, , —5, www. Maximal rates of excretion and synthesis of urea in normal and cirrhotic subjects.

Journal of Clinical Investigation Sep;52 9: Energy source, protein metabolism, and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology , 2: Prolonged meat diets with a study of kidney function and ketosis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry , Bacteria, colonic fermentation, and gastrointestinal health. A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans.

Corpet DE et al. Colonic protein fermentation and promotion of colon carcinogenesis by thermolyzed casein. Nutrition and Cancer ;23 3: Clinical effects of two different levels of protein intake on low-birth-weight infants.

Journal of Pediatrics Jun;74 6: Goldman HI et al. Effects of early dietary protein intake on low-birth-weight infants: Journal of Pediatrics Jan;78 1: Late effects of early dietary protein intake on low-birth-weight infants.

Journal of Pediatrics Dec;85 6: Lower protein in infant formula is associated with lower weight up to age 2 y: The danger of protein during pregnancy, July 12, , http: Excess methionine suppresses the methylation cycle and inhibits neural tube closure in mouse embryos.

Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society ; Hat tip to Matt Metzgar: Carb intake in healthy centenarians, January 20, , www. Testing protein leverage in lean humans: The nature of nutrition: Princeton University Press, The protein content of muscle. The Journal of Biological Chemistry ;25 2: Hat tip to Adel Moussa: Overtraining, inflammation, insufficient repair: Human muscle protein synthesis and breakdown during and after exercise.

Journal of Applied Physiology Jun; 6: An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. American Journal of Physiology Jul; 1 Pt 1: Churchward-Venne TA et al. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: Hat tip to Chris Highcock: Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise, May 17, , http: Journal of Applied Physiology Aug;73 2: See also Hoffman JR et al.

Effects of ingesting protein in combination with carbohydrate during exercise on endurance performance: Amino Acids Nov;39 5: Jitomir J, Willoughby DS. Leucine for retention of lean mass on a hypocaloric diet. Journal of Medicinal Food Dec;11 4: Life-span extension in mice by preweaning food restriction and by methionine restriction in middle age.

The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Jul;64 7: Miller RA et al. Methionine-deficient diet extends mouse lifespan, slows immune and lens aging, alters glucose, T4, IGF-I and insulin levels, and increases hepatocyte MIF levels and stress resistance. Aging Cell Jun;4 3: Orentreich N et al. Low methionine ingestion by rats extends life span. Journal of Nutrition Feb; 2: Lowered methionine ingestion as responsible for the decrease in rodent mitochondrial oxidative stress in protein and dietary restriction possible implications for humans.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Nov; Pamplona R, Barja G. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, aging and caloric restriction: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta May-Jun; 5—6: Sanchez-Roman I et al. Effects of aging and methionine restriction applied at old age on ROS generation and oxidative damage in rat liver mitochondria. Biogerontology Aug;13 4: The atherogenic effect of excess methionine intake.

Autophagy is required for dietary restriction-mediated life span extension in C. Autophagy Nov—Dec;3 6: Petrovski G, Das DK. Does autophagy take a front seat in lifespan extension? Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Nov;14 A role for autophagy in the extension of lifespan by dietary restriction in C. PLoS Genetics Feb;4 2: Autophagy and mechanisms of effective immunity. Frontiers in Immunology ;3: Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: Coronary heart disease in Greenland Inuit: Implications for Western diet patterns.

Arctic Medical Research Apr;48 2: Alternative Medicine Review Dec;10 4: Dietary restriction, glycolysis, hormesis and ageing. Biogerontology Apr;8 2: Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiological Reviews Jan;90 1: Is it good to eat sugar? British Journal of Nutrition Aug; 3: The relation of low glycaemic index fruit consumption to glycaemic control and risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia Feb;54 2: Fructose induces transketolase flux to promote pancreatic cancer growth.

Cancer Research Aug 1;70 Leucine, glucose, and energy metabolism after 3 days of fasting in healthy human subjects. European Journal of Cell Biology Aug;83 7: The adherent gastrointestinal mucus gel layer: Faure M et al.

Development of a rapid and convenient method to purify mucins and determine their in vivo synthesis rate in rats. Analytical Biochemistry Aug 15; 2: Ainsworth BE et al. Relationship between fatty acid delivery and fatty acid oxidation during strenuous exercise.

Journal of Applied Physiology Dec;79 6: Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology Dec;89 6: High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is coingested with caffeine. Journal of Applied Physiology Jul; 1: Is there a glycemic threshold for mortality risk?

Diabetes Care May;22 5: Dr Ron Rosedale, November 1, , http: The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes UKPDS The Lancet Sep 12; Clinical and Investigative Medicine Aug;18 4: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine May;15 2: Association of hemoglobin A1c with cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults: Annals of Internal Medicine Sep 21; 6: Prevalence of polyneuropathy in pre-diabetes and diabetes is associated with abdominal obesity and macroangiopathy: Diabetes Care Mar;31 3: Post-challenge blood glucose concentration and stroke mortality rates in non-diabetic men in London: Diabetologia Jul;51 7: Prospective study of hyperglycemia and cancer risk.

Diabetes Care Mar;30 3: Increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with painful sensory neuropathy. Diabetes Care Aug;24 8: Hat tip to Jenny Ruhl: Starches, sugars and obesity. Nutrients Mar;3 3: ScienceDaily, December 11, , www. Segal MS et al. Is the fructose index more relevant with regards to cardiovascular disease than the glycemic index?

European Journal of Nutrition Oct;46 7: Food processing and the glycemic index. Relationship between the rate of gastric emptying and glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods in young healthy adults. Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Jun;57 6: Gastric emptying of a solid meal is accelerated by the removal of dietary fibre naturally present in food.

Gut Jun;36 6: Jenkins AL et al. Nutrition Journal Nov 22;9: Perissinotto E et al. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in older lifelong wine drinkers: Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype and diet-gene interactions. Hepatic and whole-body fat synthesis in humans during carbohydrate overfeeding. Hat tip to geoff Adipose tissue triglyceride turnover, de novo lipogenesis, and cell proliferation in humans measured with 2H2O.

On the importance of fatty acid composition of membranes for aging. Journal of Theoretical Biology May 21; 2: Autoxidation of fats and related substances. Pergamon Press, London, , 51— Physiological Reviews Oct;87 4: Integretive and Comparative Biology Nov;50 5: The role of impaired mitochondrial lipid oxidation in obesity. Biological Research for Nursing Apr;10 4: The adipostat balloon, October 12, , http: Contribution of mitochondria to oxidative stress associated with alcoholic liver disease.

Crescenzo R et al. Increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial efficiency in a model of obesity induced by diets rich in fructose. European Journal of Nutrition Apr 28, [epub ahead of print] http: The long life of birds: Oxidation and activation of unsaturated fatty acids. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics Apr;81 2: The debate about n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid recommendations for cardiovascular health.

Journal of the American Dietetic Association Feb; 2: Problems with essential fatty acids: Progress in Lipid Research Nov;42 6: The slow discovery of the importance of omega 3 essential fatty acids in human health.

Journal of Nutrition Feb; 2 suppl: Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ;68 1: Why is carbon from some polyunsaturates extensively recycled into lipid synthesis? Lipids Apr;38 4: Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n-6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma of adult men.

Linoleic acid is associated with lower long-chain n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in red blood cell lipids of Canadian pregnant women. High dietary omega-6 fatty acids contribute to reduced docosahexaenoic acid in the developing brain and inhibit secondary neurite growth. Brain Research Oct 27; Effect of cholesterol-lowering diet on mortality from coronary heart-disease and other causes. A twelve-year clinical trial in men and women.

The Lancet Oct 21;2 A controlled clinical trial of a diet high in unsaturated fat. Circulation ; 40 suppl: Stephan Guyenet, personal communication.

Dayton S et al. Composition of lipids in human serum and adipose tissue during prolonged feeding of a diet high in unsaturated fat. The Journal of Lipid Research Jan;7 1: Baylin A et al. Adipose tissue biomarkers of fatty acid intake.

Witting LA, Lee L. Recommended dietary allowance for vitamin E:

IF YOU ENJOYED THIS POST, GET UPDATES.